PAM-4 equalizers (LFE, CTLE) using the N5461A Infiniium serial data equalization software
Embedding / de-embedding of channels using the N5465A InfiniiSim waveform transformation toolset for Infiniium oscilloscopes
Jitter and amplitude analysis on JP03 patterns using the N5400A EZJIT Plus jitter analysis software
PAM features integrated directly into the Infiniium graphical user interface (not a separate application)
Offline analysis on a PC using saved or simulated PAM-4 waveforms running N8900-003 Infiniium Offline analysis software bundle
Infiniium S-Series real-time oscilloscopes running firmware revision 5.5 or later
Demand for increased network bandwidth in data centers continues to grow. Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) is a multi-level signaling format that is enabling technology to help address this need. The switch from NRZ to PAM-4 is revolutionary, rather than evolutionary from 100G, presenting many new design and measurement challenges.
The Keysight N8827B PAM-4 analysis software for Infiniium real-time oscilloscopes is designed to accurately and quickly characterize PAM-4 electrical signals described in IEEE 802.3bj Clause 94 and address future PAM measurement needs as outlined in developing standards such as OIF-CEI-56G and IEEE 400G.