1.6T Ethernet in the Data Center
  • Courses
  • 12 items

Ethernet speeds have reached 400G, but emerging technologies still place high demands on data centers. We'll look at how innovations in data center infrastructure can enable 1.6T Ethernet.


  • How market demands push data centers to process 1.6 terabits of data per second
  • From industry experts about the new electrical & optical technologies enabling 224 Gbps lane speeds
  • The Keysight M8050A & M8199A for Ethernet R&D
Data Center Infrastructure: Glossary of Terms


Data Center Infrastructure: Glossary of Terms

Data Center Infrastructure


Common Terms & Acronyms

Access Node Control Protocol (ANCP)

A Layer 2 TCP protocol that facilitates communication between an access node, such as a digital subscriber line access multiplexer (DSLAM), and a Layer 3 subscriber-aware controller, such as a broadband remote access server (BRAS) or network-attached storage (NAS).

Access Point (AP)

A hardware device that acts as a communication hub for wireless device users to connect to a wired local area network (LAN).

Active Optical Cable (AOC)

A high-performance, low power consumption cable that uses the same electrical inputs as a traditional copper cable, but with optical fiber between the connectors and electrical-to-optical conversion on the cable ends.

Application and Threat Intelligence (ATI)

Threat intelligence data, gathered and distributed in real time, containing up-to-the-moment network security and application security information that can be utilized by network infrastructure.

Application Performance Monitoring (APM)

Area of information technology (IT) that ensures software application programs perform as expected by measuring and monitoring service-level agreements to provide end users with a high quality of experience.

Artificial Intelligence (AI)

The simulation of human intelligence by machines or computer systems.

Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)

A communication protocol that encodes data into cells using asynchronous time-division multiplexing. It is used in telecommunications networks to carry integrated voice, data and video data.

Arbitrary Waveform Generator (AWG)

Electronic test equipment used to generate electrical waveforms. An AWG is often used in the design and troubleshooting of electronic circuits.

Base Station Controller (BSC)

A mobile network element that provides control functions to one or more base transceiver stations (BTS). The BSC is responsible for radio network management, hand-off functions and cell configuration data.

Base Transceiver Station (BTS)

The BTS connects user equipment (UE), such as mobile devices, to the mobile network. Commonly referred to as a cellphone tower, it is a fixed radio transceiver that sends and receives radio signals to mobile devices and converts them to digital signals to transmit over the internet.

Bidirectional (BIDI)

Often used in optical communications to describe a single strand of optical fiber that can transmit data in both directions.

Bit Error Ratio (BER)

The measure of the percentage of bits received with errors, due to noise or interference, divided by the number of bits transmitted. The BER is calculated by comparing the transmitted sequence of bits to the received bits and counting the number of errors.

High Performance Digital Products


High Performance Digital Products



Physical-Layer Characterization, Validation, and Compliance Testing Systems


Today’s enterprise and consumer products are driving the need for faster processing at lower power consumption and pushing your design margins to the extreme. Consumer technologies, communication infrastructure, data centers, pure science, electronic warfare, and quantum computing are driving measurement limits.


Today’s laboratory requires best-in-class measurement and stimulus tools that can help validate test needs now and in the future. The Keysight Infiniium UXR-Series oscilloscope, Infiniium MXR-Series oscilloscope, M8100 Series arbitrary waveform generators (AWG), the J-BERT M8020A, M8040A, and M8050A high performance bit error ratio testers (BERT), and Keysight DCA sampling oscilloscopes are invaluable tools for testing and validating complex signals.


From physical-layer characterization to validation and compliance testing solutions, Keysight’s high-performance digital test tools enable you to design, verify, and characterize each step of your design workflow.


Infiniium UXR-Series Oscilloscope


The Infiniium UXR is the first series of real-time oscilloscopes to offer ultra-high-performance acquisition with 10 bits of high-definition resolution. Designed with upgradability in mind, the UXR will support your current and future designs and test needs.


• Up to 110 GHz bandwidth

• 10-bit hardware analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

• Maximum bandwidth on all channels

• Industry’s lowest noise and best interchannel jitter performance Up to 256 GSa/s sample rate

• Two or four phase-coherent channels per frame

• Up to 40 synchronized channels via Keysight’s MultiScope support

• ENOB from 7.0 to 5.0 (10 GHz to 110 GHz)


Specifications (at max bandwidth)

3.5 mm Models

1.85 mm Models

1 mm Models


10 to 33 GHz

40 to 70 GHz

5, 25, 40, 59 to 110 GHz

Maximum sample rate

128 GSa/s

256 GSa/s

256 GSa/s

Noise at highest sensitivity and bandwidth

< 0.3 mV (rms)

< 0.5 mV (rms)

< 0.9 mV (rms)

ENOB at  400 mVfs average value from DC to full licensed bandwidth of model

from 7.0 to 5.9

from 5.8 to 5.4

from 8.1 to 5.0

Max multiframe channels

40 channels maximum (10 oscilloscopes)

Detectable symbol rate at maximum bandwidth

66 Gbaud

140 Gbaud

220 Gbaud

Vertical sensitivity (hardware) Vertical sensitivity (with zoom)

40 mV to 8 V full scale 1 mV / div to 1 V / div

60 mV to 4 V full scale

1 mV / div to 500 mV / div

60 mV to 4 V full scale

1 mV / div to 500 mV / div

Hardware acquisition / acceleration system

•   2.16 GHz digital downconversion 

•   10-bit ADC      • Equalization and clock recovery

(DDC analysis bandwidth)

•   Phase Noise Measurement     • 5 to 10 GHz mmWave frequency extensions    •  Real-time eye plotting and averaging


•   Bandwidth (from 5, 10, 13, 16, 20, 25, 33, 40, 50, 59, 70, 80, 100 to 110 GHz)

•   Memory from 500 Mpts / CH to 1 Gpts or 2 Gpts

•   1, 2, to 4 channels

Data Center High-Speed Computing Products Catalog


Data Center High-Speed Computing Products Catalog

Flexible Solutions for Evolving Industry Standards

Emerging technologies such as 5G, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, the Internet of Things, and autonomous vehicles generate an enormous amount of data in the network, creating new computing and performance demands in the data center.


Each new generation of high-speed computing standards introduces new features and faster data transfer rates, creating fresh test challenges for digital designers. Because standards evolve quickly, Keysight’s data center solutions test specific industry standards, reducing time and ensuring compliance and interoperability of devices.


This catalog covers the following standards:

• Peripheral Component Interconnect Express  (PCI Express® or PCIe®)

• Double Data Rate (DDR) memory

• Universal Serial Bus (USB)


Design and Simulation Software

High-speed digital designs become significantly more complex as data rates increase. Channel topologies become more diverse, and you need to tune more parameters for active components. Use simulation to optimize the signal and power integrity of your designs and analyze the electromagnetic (EM) effects of components such as high-speed integrated circuit packages and printed circuit board (PCB) interconnects


Reduce design and simulation time

Design and simulation software enables you to optimize transmitter (Tx), receiver (Rx), and channel designs for the best performance and reliability at the desired speed grade. You can design to resolve signal integrity issues, ensure power efficiency, and stay within tight error margins before the first prototype.


PathWave ADS bundle for high-speed digital design

Signal Integrity EM Analysis Element (SIPro)

Power Integrity EM Analysis Element (PIPro)

Memory Designer

Software for high-speed digital designers

Signal integrity analysis software for high-speed PCBs

Accurate and efficient net-driven power integrity analysis

Software to analyze memory designs faster and link to compliance applications


Infiniium UXR-Series Oscilloscopes

Keysight’s Infiniium UXR-Series oscilloscopes offer ultrahigh-performance acquisition with 10 bits of high-definition resolution. Designed for upgradability, the UXR will support current and future design and test needs.


• up to 110 GHz bandwidth

• 10-bit hardware analog-to-digital converter (ADC)

• maximum bandwidth on all channels

• industry’s lowest noise and best interchannel  jitter performance

• up to 256 GSa/s sample rate

• two or four phase-coherent channels per frame

• up to 40 synchronized channels via  MultiScope support