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Data Center Interconnect (DCI)
DCI refers to the network connections within a data center (intra-DCI) or between two or more data centers (inter-DCI).
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Data Center Infrastructure Management (DCIM)
DCIM solutions provide an overall view of a data center's performance through the integration and analysis of IT and building facility systems.
Data center infrastructure management addresses the top three concerns of data center operators and managers: cost, footprint, and power.
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Gigabit Ethernet (GE)
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.3 standard defines gigabit Ethernet as the transmission of Ethernet frames at a rate of 1 billion bits per second (Gb/s).
Data center operators need to evolve the speed of their networks from 100GE to 400GE to support the response times and high bandwidth requirements of emerging technologies such as 5G and IoT.
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Forward Error Correction (FEC)
An advanced coding technique used to control and mitigate errors in data transmission over unreliable or noisy communication channels. PAM4 signaling will use FEC encoding to account for its lower signal-to-noise ratio. The required information to correct errors passes through the link along with the payload data.
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Peripheral Component Interconnect Express (PCIe®)
PCIe is a computer expansion bus standard that enables faster data exchange between a computer processor and peripheral devices. Technologies such as 400GE drive I/O interconnect technologies, including PCI Express, to 32 gigatransfers per second (GT/s).
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Double Data Rate (DDR) Memory
Optimized memory is another way of making servers faster to support 400GE speeds. DDR is a type of computer memory that can transfer data twice as fast as regular synchronous dynamic random-access memory (SDRAM) chips since it can send and receive signals twice every clock cycle.
Each generation of DDR memory has progressively faster data rates and clock frequencies. DDR5 will double the speed of DDR4.
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Network Functions Virtualization (NFV)
NFV is a network architecture concept that automates entire classes of network node functions into building blocks that connect, or chain together, to create communication services. Network functions virtualization creates highly scalable, flexible, and open standard network architectures to enable service providers to provide new services with unmatched scale and speed.
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Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM)
QAM is a two-dimensional modulation format that modulates both the phase and amplitude of light to transmit a signal through a fiber optic cable. Higher order QAM signaling enables significantly faster data transmission rates and higher levels of spectral efficiency.
Metro networks and data center interconnects will use QAM signaling to provide significantly faster data transmission rates.
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