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E5071C ENA Calibration Down to 9 kHz Using the N4431A/B 4-Port ECal Modules

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 For the Keysight Technologies, Inc. E5071C ENA network analyzer with irmware revision 8.12 or below, calibration in the frequency range of 9 kHz to 300 kHz can only be achieved using a mechanical calibration kits. Firmware revision 9.1 enables calibration in this frequency range via Keysight’s electronic calibration (ECal) modules. This note explains the theory behind this new technique and shows how to calibrate the E5071C down to 9 kHz using the irmware revision 9.1 and the N4431A/B 4-port ECal modules. An example using a 3.5 mm thru adapter is given.  Theory The N4431A/B ECal modules have a deinition value of standards down to 300 kHz and which has limited the calibration from 9 kHz to 300 kHz on the E5071C. The new method of calibrating the ENA down to 9 kHz now available with irmware rev. 9.10 models the N4431A/B ECal standards value using its 300 kHz to 1 MHz data, and then uses that model to extract the lower frequency data. The extraction is done in the ENA irmware, thus no additional procedures are necessary. Extracting calibration data using modeling is an appropriate method as long as the model is deemed valid. Modeling is especially valid at low frequencies because of its ability to ignore parasitic effects. Note: The calibration technique described in this note only applies to the N4431A/B 4-port ECal modules with factory characterized data, with the E5071C ENA Options 9 or 100 kHz to 3, 4.5, or 8.5 GHz, irmware revision A.09.10 or higher. User characterization data of the N4431A/B is unaffected by this new technique. The latest ENA irmware is available at

 In this paper, both the theory and the reliable performance of the ECal modeling method of calibration down to 9 kHz for the ENA has been shown. The ENA performance calibrated using this method is proved reliable. The modeling method has consistent and expected behavior for the N4431A/B ECal modules from 9 kHz to 300 kHz using the defined thru method. Also, this methodology is referred by the production documents of the N4431B in Keysight, which means that the ECal module has characteristic performance down to 9 kHz. 


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