Application Notes 2022.05.13

N9055EM0E Power Amplifier Measurement Application Demo Guide

N9055EM0E Power Amplifier Measurement Application Demo Guide

N9055EM0E Power Amplifier measurement application is an integrated PA testing system targeting at 5G NR, WLAN, or other wideband PA test scenarios. N9055EM0E is running inside Keysight X-Series Signal Analyzers which can be connected Keysight Signal Generators for signal generation to make both Pre-DPD and Post-DPD measurements. This article aims to demonstrate how to make successful PA DPD measurements via N9055EM0E Power Amplifier measurement application using MATLAB Script.

2022.05.13

Application Notes 2022.05.11

Viewing Graphical Results on a DMM Display

Viewing Graphical Results on a DMM Display

Keysight Truevolt digital multimeter (DMM) features a large graphical display and built-in math functions that display measurement trends, statistics, and histograms. Learn more from this application note about this benchtop multimeter. It has intuitive user interface that gives you quick and intuitive access to different views of your data. You can easily access the structured display and math menus with a single key on the front panel.

2022.05.11

Application Notes 2022.05.10

Tips: Improve Environment Noise for LF Noise

Tips: Improve Environment Noise for LF Noise

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2022.05.10

Application Notes 2022.05.09

Matching Response Times of Lithium-Ion Cell Self-Discharge Current Measurements

Matching Response Times of Lithium-Ion Cell Self-Discharge Current Measurements

New system calibration method assures well-matched response times of self-discharge current measurements, enabling reliable classification of cells more quickly.

2022.05.09

Application Notes 2022.05.05

Using a Function/Arbitrary Waveform Generator to Generate Pulses

Using a Function/Arbitrary Waveform Generator to Generate Pulses

Function generators offer quite a bit of flexibility for creating pulses from simple modified square waves to arbitrary waveforms. Some function generators may even have special hardware added to generate very accurate pulses. For high-speed pulse applications, a dedicated pulse generator will be necessary and will offer additional features for creating pulses.

2022.05.05

Application Notes 2022.05.05

Precise Cable and Antenna Measurement Techniques in the Field

Precise Cable and Antenna Measurement Techniques in the Field

This application note covers the practical techniques of cable and antenna testing. Learn the easy way to measure return loss and VSWR in a field or lab setting with FieldFox.

2022.05.05

Application Notes 2022.05.04

How to Easily Create an Arbitrary Waveform Without Programming

How to Easily Create an Arbitrary Waveform Without Programming

Creating arbitrary waveforms on a modern function generator or arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) is not as difficult as you might think. Many engineers try to avoid creating arbitrary waveforms (arbs) at all costs. When they hear the word “arb“, they picture the tedious process of learning how to use some type of waveform software or, worse yet, having to write a program to generate a waveform and then remotely connecting to your AWG to upload the arb. With modern AWGs, creating an arbitrary waveform no longer has to be looked upon with doom and gloom.

2022.05.04

Application Notes 2022.05.04

Waveform Sequencing with PathWave BenchVue Waveform Builder Pro

Waveform Sequencing with PathWave BenchVue Waveform Builder Pro

The application note covers how to implement waveform sequencing using 33503A PathWave BenchVue Waveform Builder Pro, supported by Keysight 33500B and 33600A Series Trueform waveform generators.

2022.05.04

Application Notes 2022.04.29

VSA 89600 Direct Data Connectivity Console Example

VSA 89600 Direct Data Connectivity Console Example

This application note is a demo guide for the example program that shows the user how to configure the VSA’s .NET API to use direct data input to 89600 VSA. Working through the entire console demo is achieved by the user responding to prompts in the console window. This demo guide will explain every step in detail.

2022.04.29

Application Notes 2022.04.29

VSA 89600 Direct Data Connectivity WPF Example

VSA 89600 Direct Data Connectivity WPF Example

This application note is a demo guide for the example program that shows the user how to configure the VSA’s .NET API to use direct data input to 89600 VSA. All configurations are done through the GUI with concise steps for the user to follow.

2022.04.29

Application Notes 2022.04.26

Achieving Test Coverage Assurance using PathWave Manufacturing Analytics

Achieving Test Coverage Assurance using PathWave Manufacturing Analytics

Quality is King. Producing quality products is the biggest goal in manufacturing and an uncompromised option. Quality is being considered in each stage of the product lifecycle, from design to early validation, and to mass-production testing. Engineers developed tests with the best test coverage to ensure all defective products remained in the factory. Keysight’s PathWave Manufacturing Analytics (PMA), an Industry 4.0 real-time big data analytics solution, not only helps improve manufacturing efficiency but more importantly provides actionable insights to manufacturers to ensure that the quality of test is never compromised in the manufacturing line.

2022.04.26

Application Notes 2022.04.26

All-States Method for PDL or PER Synchronous Polarization Scrambler

All-States Method for PDL or PER Synchronous Polarization Scrambler

Explanation and programming for all-states measurement of PDL or PER

2022.04.26

Application Notes 2022.04.25

Fixture Reusability Consideration From In-line to Offline

Fixture Reusability Consideration From In-line to Offline

This application note describes the differences between the i3070 Series 5 inline 4 module test system (E9986E) fixture and the offline 4 module test system fixture, as well as the fixture reusability considerations.

2022.04.25

Application Notes 2022.04.20

Over-the-Air Performance Measurement - 5G

Over-the-Air Performance Measurement - 5G

This application note discusses the challenges RF engineers face when deploying 5G on mmWave and how the Fieldfox analyzer meets those challenges.

2022.04.20

Application Notes 2022.04.20

Evaluating Battery Drain N6700 Series Modular Power Supplies

Evaluating Battery Drain N6700 Series Modular Power Supplies

You can measure and analyze the short– and long-term battery drain using the Keysight N6705C DC power analyzer and any of the N6700 Series SMUs with the BV9200B PathWave BenchVue advanced power control and analysis software. You can use the actual battery instead of a DC source to power battery-powered devices for real-time results.

2022.04.20

Application Notes 2022.04.19

How to Ensure That Your Product Complies with IEC61000-4-11 Standards

How to Ensure That Your Product Complies with IEC61000-4-11 Standards

This application note describes how the Keysight AC6900 can help you ensure that your new product complies with IEC standard 61000-4-11 and passes rigorous field testing

2022.04.19

Application Notes 2022.04.19

Optimize Power Source Integrity Under Large Load Transients

Optimize Power Source Integrity Under Large Load Transients

Today’s integrated circuits are operating faster than ever. The increased operating speed can lead to highly dynamic power demand from the power supply, which poses a challenge during testing when you source power using programmable power supplies. The high-speed current waveforms can lead to voltage drops at the integrated circuit. If it is severe enough, the voltage drop can reset the microprocessor or cause anomalies in your test results. This application note explains why this voltage drop occurs and offers several ways to achieve the lowest possible voltage drop by selecting optimal load leads and power supplies and using local bypassing.

2022.04.19

Application Notes 2022.04.19

How to Optimize Power Supply Testing Using the Keysight N6790 Series

How to Optimize Power Supply Testing Using the Keysight N6790 Series

The Keysight N6790 Series electronic load modules give you unmatched performance and speed for power supply test. For bench or system applications in any testing environment, you can count on high quality and reliability with superior performance and features.

2022.04.19

Application Notes 2022.04.19

Polarization Alignment Methods

Polarization Alignment Methods

Explanation and programming for aligning optical polarization to devices and probes

2022.04.19

Application Notes 2022.04.12

Data Center Visibility Deployment Guide

Data Center Visibility Deployment Guide

This application note provides practical guidance on designing and deploying visibility infrastructure for data center and virtualized environments. It covers topology, clustering, tap vs span, deduplication, encapsulation and other topics.

2022.04.12

Application Notes 2022.04.03

The Six Axes of Calibration

The Six Axes of Calibration

To help demonstrate the variances in the deliverables and value of calibration due to lack of regulation. They have been split into 6 axes. This document discusses each of these axes.

2022.04.03

Application Notes 2022.04.01

Performance and Security Testing for Zero Trust in Distributed Cloud

Performance and Security Testing for Zero Trust in Distributed Cloud

Explore the features of Keysight’s CyPerf, the industry’s first instantly scalable software test solution for zero trust. Learn how dynamic agents support millions of connections per second and more.

2022.04.01

Application Notes 2022.03.31

How Eggplant Digital Automation Intelligence (DAI) Runner Optimizes DevOps

How Eggplant Digital Automation Intelligence (DAI) Runner Optimizes DevOps

The Digital Automation Intelligence (DAI) runner is an executable, or command-line tool, from Eggplant that allows you to trigger Eggplant DAI tests remotely through the DAI API. The DAI runner is available for the Mac, Windows, and Linux (CentOS and Ubuntu) operating systems.

2022.03.31

Application Notes 2022.03.27

Interoperability and Compliance of USB Type-C® Cables and Connectors

Interoperability and Compliance of USB Type-C® Cables and Connectors

Ensuring Interoperability and Compliance of USB Type-C® Cables and Connectors is challenging. This article covers USB Type-C cable and connector design and test solutions.

2022.03.27

Application Notes 2022.03.24

Specifying Calibration Standards and Kits for Keysight Vector Network Analyzers

Specifying Calibration Standards and Kits for Keysight Vector Network Analyzers

This application note covers calibration standard definitions, calibration kit content, and the structure requirements for Keysight's vector network analyzers.

2022.03.24

Application Notes 2022.03.24

Designing for Stability in High Frequency Circuits

Designing for Stability in High Frequency Circuits

This application note will help engineers understand how instabilities fundamentally arise in their circuit and illustrate how to troubleshoot and resolve these issues up front in the design process before manufacturing. This not only requires an understanding of classic theory and techniques, but also practical knowledge to apply these efficiently using modern design tools such as a novel new impedance probe called the WS-Probe.

2022.03.24

Application Notes 2022.03.22

Compute Express Link (CXL): A New Coherency Protocol Over PCIe

Compute Express Link (CXL): A New Coherency Protocol Over PCIe

CXL Educational Application Note

2022.03.22

Application Notes 2022.03.17

PathWave Test Automation Training Editor Introduction

PathWave Test Automation Training Editor Introduction

This is an application note for PathWave Test Automation software. This application note introduce Test Automation software and provide some quick demo to get familiar with Test Automation software.

2022.03.17

Application Notes 2022.03.17

How to Create and Demodulate Custom OFDM Signals

How to Create and Demodulate Custom OFDM Signals

This application note covers the custom OFDM signal overview and provides a step-by-step guide to create a custom OFDM WLAN signal (802.11a) in N7607C Singal Studio for WLAN and then demodulate it with N9054EM1E VMA Custom OFDM X-Series measurement applicaiton.

2022.03.17

Application Notes 2022.03.09

Optimizing Fast Power ACLR Measurements with the N9042B and N9032B X-Series Signal Analyzers

Optimizing Fast Power ACLR Measurements with the N9042B and N9032B X-Series Signal Analyzers

The N9042B and N9032B Analyzers (Option FP2) have a FFT based “Fast Power” (FP) measurement feature with instantaneous bandwidths selectable up to 2 GHz, for capturing Channel Power and ACLR of multiple channels in one shot. After choosing the appropriate bandwidth option, but prior to taking a measurement these analyzers must be set up for the best dynamic range so that the ACLR floor of the instrument is the lowest achievable and significantly below that of the DUT. To achieve the best dynamic range at a given power level, there’s a trade-off involved between noise and non-linearity settings of the N9042B that include a) 0 to 70 dB range Attenuator, b) Signal Path with choice of four active gain states of the RF front-end, and c) -32 to +32 dB IF Gain range. These three individual settings need to be optimized at each power level of the input signal which is typically swept over a very wide power range for 5G NR wideband applications. Automating this optimization process is essential, and two methods are described in this paper.

2022.03.09

Application Notes 2022.02.24

Integrate AP1200A into i7090

Integrate AP1200A into i7090

This application note outlines the procedures and requirements for implementing a CAN bus communication on the i7090 with the Keysight AP1200A instrument.

2022.02.24

Application Notes 2022.02.14

Boost the Potential of Your Type-C Designs

Boost the Potential of Your Type-C Designs

This application note provides an overview of Type-C link debug and optimization using USB4 as an example. Learn how a Lane Adapter State Machine describes the behavior of the logical link layer and get step-by-step procedures for debugging and optimizing the USB link.

2022.02.14

Application Notes 2022.02.14

Test Program Migration to 10.x software

Test Program Migration to 10.x software

How to use system variable to minimize the effort on migrating the existing test program to run on i3070 software version 10.x or latest

2022.02.14

Application Notes 2022.02.08

10 Tips to Enhance DC Power Testing and Analysis

10 Tips to Enhance DC Power Testing and Analysis

The capability to deliver clean and accurate power to your device under test ensures get the right results. These 10 tips will enable this and let you get more out of your power supply.

2022.02.08

Application Notes 2022.02.06

Keysight Pass/Fail Decision Rules - Application Note

Keysight Pass/Fail Decision Rules - Application Note

A decision rule is a “rule that describes how measurement uncertainty is accounted for when stating conformity with a specified requirement.” When you perform a measurement and subsequently compare the result to a specification, making a statement of conformity you have two possible outcomes: You make a correct pass / fail decision or you make an incorrect pass / fail decision.

2022.02.06

Application Notes 2022.01.27

Data Logging and Digitizing with a Digital Multimeter (DMM) — It’s About Time!

Data Logging and Digitizing with a Digital Multimeter (DMM) — It’s About Time!

Now -- data logging and digitizing optimized in a DMM for optimized front panel operation rathern than remote programming and data transfer.

2022.01.27

Application Notes 2022.01.14

Quick Tips to Improve Network Performance

Quick Tips to Improve Network Performance

Learn how you can use a visibility architecture to improve performance monitoring activities and: 1. Capture performance-related data as fast as possible to get the best quality data possible. 2. Capture the right types of data that you need and distribute that data to your purpose-built monitoring tools. 3. Harness the power of application intelligence to improve the quality and speed of your monitoring and analysis activities.

2022.01.14

Application Notes 2022.01.14

Quick Tips to Improve Network Security

Quick Tips to Improve Network Security

Read this application note to learn how to optimize the availability and reliability of inline security devices; isolate and capture the right kind of data for the security tools to process; perform active SSL decryption for improved data inspection and simplification of the decryption infrastructure; and improve the efficiency and accuracy of your current security architecture.

2022.01.14

Application Notes 2022.01.13

Quick Tips to Improve Network Compliance

Quick Tips to Improve Network Compliance

Read this application note to learn how to create a visibility architecture that can lower this risk by capturing better compliance data to create improved audit trails.

2022.01.13

Application Notes 2022.01.13

Quick Tips to Create Self-Provisioning Packet Brokers

Quick Tips to Create Self-Provisioning Packet Brokers

The usability of the NPB determines productivity increases and total cost of ownership (TCO) savings. Therefore, the system must not only be easy to set up, but must be easy to maintain as well. Read this application note to learn how to overcome key issues for network monitoring systems.

2022.01.13

Application Notes 2022.01.12

Barcode Scanning Implementation

Barcode Scanning Implementation

See how you can set up a barcode scanner on the i7090 Massively Parallel In-Circuit Test System without needing an operator to manually scan the barcode on PCBs.

2022.01.12

Application Notes 2022.01.06

LF Noise Measurement with Switch Matrix Mainframe

LF Noise Measurement with Switch Matrix Mainframe

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2022.01.06

Application Notes 2022.01.05

EVM: The Heart of Everything Wireless

EVM: The Heart of Everything Wireless

Learn how EVM connects to power amplifier or transceiver design goals for wireless applications such as 5G and satellite communications, as well as tips and recommendation on how to achieve them.

2022.01.05

Application Notes 2022.01.04

Why Migrate from the 4155C and 4156C to the B1500A?

Why Migrate from the 4155C and 4156C to the B1500A?

This application note shows you the advantages of migrating from 4155C/56C to B1500A.

2022.01.04

Application Notes 2022.01.04

Quick Tips on Security Resilience

Quick Tips on Security Resilience

The security resilience concept is a recommendation by NIST. Unlike a defensive security approach (which is about prevention), security resilience focuses on "after breach" activities. The basic assumption is that it is not "if" your network be attacked but "when". To that end, your architecture should have the capability to understand that a breach has occurred and begin remediating the damage incurred. The reason for focusing on this strategy is simple—you want to reduce costs. These activities, if done right, will help you reduce the costs of a breach either directly by limiting the data stolen, or by decreasing the financial amount of each fine incurred, and in turn, minimizing bad publicity.This application note provides some quick tips to show you how the following issues can be reduced:Threat discovery timeCompany riskComponent recovery and validation time

2022.01.04

Application Notes 2021.12.15

Efficient Impedance Measurement of a Large Amount of Components by Using a Scanning System

Efficient Impedance Measurement of a Large Amount of Components by Using a Scanning System

How to adopt measurement systems using a LF LCR meter and an impedance analyzer with a scanner and solve issues relating to residual impedance and more.

2021.12.15

Application Notes 2021.12.14

Virtual Reference Design from Wolfspeed

Virtual Reference Design from Wolfspeed

This application note serves as a guide to using a PathWave ADS workspace to simulate a virtual version of a physical reference design from Wolfspeed Model CRD-HB12N-J1. This model showcases the Silicon Carbide (SiC) power transistors (C3M0032120J1 series) from Wolfspeed. This guide provides instructions on how to start building your next-generation switched-mode power supply. The reference design – in both virtual and physical forms - is a good starting point for your own project.

2021.12.14

Application Notes 2021.12.09

SMH FR2.0 Performance on i7090

SMH FR2.0 Performance on i7090

This document introduces how to use i7090 power relay board and how to expand power channel.

2021.12.09

Application Notes 2021.12.02

Battery Solutions for Wireless Devices Use Cases

Battery Solutions for Wireless Devices Use Cases

This is an app note which outlines use cases for battery manufacturers or battery-powered device designers.

2021.12.02

Application Notes 2021.12.02

Practical Tips to Help You Get the Most Out of the E36300 Series Bench Power Supplies

Practical Tips to Help You Get the Most Out of the E36300 Series Bench Power Supplies

This application note provides practical tips to get the most out of the E36300 series bench power supplies.

2021.12.02

Application Notes 2021.11.29

Get More Usable Power on Your Bench

Get More Usable Power on Your Bench

The E36200 Series autoranging power supply’s design handles more applications and provides more current at every voltage. Additional flexibility enables 200 to 400 W power supplies to run more applications. The E36200 Series is a bench power supply with smart capabilities such as autoranging, auto-series, and auto-paralleling to cover many applications without resorting to an oversized supply.

2021.11.29

Application Notes 2021.11.29

Negative Testing using LoadCore

Negative Testing using LoadCore

Application Note for LoadCore/5G Core network testing product highlighting a key feature and product differentiator: capability of impairing (modify on-the-fly) control plane packets and procedures.

2021.11.29

Application Notes 2021.11.28

VSA 89600 Direct Data Connectivity

VSA 89600 Direct Data Connectivity

Use the direct data connectivity through an example application.

2021.11.28

Application Notes 2021.11.28

Wafer and Chip-Level Optical Test

Wafer and Chip-Level Optical Test

See how the N7700 Lambda Scan test system supports integrated photonics with polarization alignment for optical testing of wafers and chips.

2021.11.28

Application Notes 2021.11.23

Calibrating Optical Paths in Spectral Test Stations Using the Lambda Scan Software Engine

Calibrating Optical Paths in Spectral Test Stations Using the Lambda Scan Software Engine

Guidance for using the IL de-embedding function of the Photonic Application Suite software.

2021.11.23

Application Notes 2021.11.21

How to Extract the ASM-HEMT Model for GaN RF Devices Including Thermal Effects

How to Extract the ASM-HEMT Model for GaN RF Devices Including Thermal Effects

A comprehensive extraction procedure for the industry-standard ASM-HEMT model for GaN devices, including self-heating. This strategy is included in PathWave Device Modeling (IC-CAP) as an example.

2021.11.21

Application Notes 2021.11.17

10 Practical Tips to Help Your Power Testing and Analysis

10 Practical Tips to Help Your Power Testing and Analysis

Learn ten simple ways to improve your testing capabilities with your power supplies and electronic loads.

2021.11.17

Application Notes 2021.11.12

Choosing a Detector for Optical Power Measurements

Choosing a Detector for Optical Power Measurements

Choosing the right detector for the application is important for measurement accuracy.

2021.11.12

Application Notes 2021.11.11

Time-Gated Spectral Analysis with X-Series Signal Analyzers

Time-Gated Spectral Analysis with X-Series Signal Analyzers

Time gating allows you to measure the spectrum of a periodic signal during a specific portion of time, typically the on-time of the bursted signal. A trigger is used to synchronize when the burst occurs. In many cases the spectral components that otherwise would contribute to the pulse’s rising and falling edge will mask spectral components that contribute to the spectrum of the pulse during its on time. Gating is also useful for applied spectral measurements such as channel power, adjacent channel power, and spectral emission mask measurements of a modulated signal that is bursted in the time domain. This application note will discuss four basic items needed to make successful time-gating measurements.

2021.11.11

Application Notes 2021.11.11

Simulate Power Supply Transients and Noise During Development and Validation of Satellite and Defense Systems

Simulate Power Supply Transients and Noise During Development and Validation of Satellite and Defense Systems

DC power analyzer N6705 is a multi-function instrument that makes it easy to simulate a wide range of power transients and noise signals.

2021.11.11

Application Notes 2021.11.08

100 Gb/s System Level Electrical Signaling Impact from EM Modal Artifacts in Hyperscale Networks

100 Gb/s System Level Electrical Signaling Impact from EM Modal Artifacts in Hyperscale Networks

This white paper will educate the reader about how mode conversion in differential channels can affect internet infrastructure physical layer adversely.

2021.11.08

Application Notes 2021.11.07

Data Center Ethernet Technology and Evolution to 224 Gbps

Data Center Ethernet Technology and Evolution to 224 Gbps

224 Gbps Test Solutions

2021.11.07

Application Notes 2021.10.27

Real World Network Testing

Real World Network Testing

Adding impairments to the test environment is required for a realistic test

2021.10.27

Application Notes 2021.10.25

Wide Dynamic Range Multi-Channel Power Measurements

Wide Dynamic Range Multi-Channel Power Measurements

Achieve fast and accurate multi-channel power measurements over a wide dynamic range with Keysight’s X-Series USB/LAN wide dynamic range power sensors.

2021.10.25

Application Notes 2021.10.20

Boost EMC Test Throughput with Accelerated Time Domain Scan

Boost EMC Test Throughput with Accelerated Time Domain Scan

EMC testing in the automotive industry requires exacting methodologies to measure all emissions accurately. Long test times impact test facility availability and potentially reduces the number of devices that are certified. It’s also easy to miss intermittent disturbance signals with conventional scans since an extended dwell time must occur at each frequency.

2021.10.20

Application Notes 2021.10.06

Testing the 5 C’s + 1 of IoT

Testing the 5 C’s + 1 of IoT

The Internet of Things has many exciting and profitable opportunities. Product development teams can increase their chances for success by following a framework known as the 5 C’s + 1 of IoT.

2021.10.06

Application Notes 2021.10.05

Battery Emulation for Mission Critical IoT and Medical Devices

Battery Emulation for Mission Critical IoT and Medical Devices

As the IoT incorporates increasingly sophisticated technologies—artificial intelligence, augmented reality, edge computing, sensor fusion—battery emulation becomes more important.

2021.10.05

Application Notes 2021.09.28

Addressing the Test Challenges of Wi-Fi/5G CPE

Addressing the Test Challenges of Wi-Fi/5G CPE

Use this application note to learn more about testing Wi-Fi/5G CPE and how the E6680A wireless test set can help.

2021.09.28

Application Notes 2021.09.27

Addressing Wi-Fi Measurement Challenges with a Multi-channel Test Instrument

Addressing Wi-Fi Measurement Challenges with a Multi-channel Test Instrument

Use this application note to learn about how the multiple channels of the E6680A wireless test set helps you verify your Wi-Fi 6E and 802.11be designs.

2021.09.27

Application Notes 2021.09.27

Experimental Validation for a 100 Gb/s Per Lane C2M Hyperscale Link Using Channel Operating Margin

Experimental Validation for a 100 Gb/s Per Lane C2M Hyperscale Link Using Channel Operating Margin

Physical Layer Testing of Chip-to-Module Link.

2021.09.27

Application Notes 2021.09.21

Accurately Measure Path Loss for Over the Air Transmitter and Receiver Measurements

This application note describes how to improve the accuracy of the Keysight IOT8720/40A IoT wireless test solution by properly measuring path loss and applying the correct system offset in the test plan.

2021.09.21

Application Notes 2021.09.21

Wireless LAN Throughput Test Using IOT8700 Series

This application note describes how to perform WLAN Throughput measurements using Keysight IOT8720/40A IoT wireless test solutions.

2021.09.21

Application Notes 2021.09.20

Signal Integrity Analysis Series Part 1: Single-Port TDR, TDR/TDT, and 2-Port TDR

Part 1 of a 2-part series explaining techniques in signal integrity analysis for those who use single-port TDR, TDR/TDT and 2-port TDR. Learn more.

2021.09.20

Application Notes 2021.09.17

Highly Accurate RF System Modeling for Wi-Fi and Cellular Interference Analysis

Learn about why you need accurate RF models when designing systems that operate in crowded frequencies with multiple devices and standards, includes detailed use case example.

2021.09.17

Application Notes 2021.09.15

Create Test Sequences without Programming Using BenchVue Test Flow

Find out how BenchVue's Test Flow app helps you create test sequences without ever having to write a program to speed up your test sequence.

2021.09.15

Application Notes 2021.09.14

Oscilloscope Measurement Tools to Help Debug Automotive Serial Buses Quickly

Oscilloscope Measurement Tools to Help Debug Automotive Serial Buses Quickly

Explore the unique measurement capabilities of Keysight scopes which help you characterize and debug the physical layer of automotive serial buses faster.

2021.09.14

Application Notes 2021.09.13

Jitter: Measurements and Instrument Solutions

Jitter: Measurements and Instrument Solutions

Explore jitter measurements at high data rates, issues impacting jitter measurement accuracy, and how to select instruments and tools for jitter analysis.

2021.09.13

Application Notes 2021.09.13

What’s the Difference Between True View and Source Estimate Mode?

What’s the Difference Between True View and Source Estimate Mode?

Learn the difference between the two common methods for correcting oscilloscope probe response: True View (Vout/Vin) and Source Estimate (Vout/Vsource).

2021.09.13

Application Notes 2021.09.12

Demystifying RCRC and RC Probe

Demystifying RCRC and RC Probe

This paper discusses the advantages of RCRC probes over standard RC probes. It covers input impedance characteristics, and how probe input impedance affects measurements.

2021.09.12

Application Notes 2021.09.10

Designing Leading-Edge Memory Systems

Designing Leading-Edge Memory Systems

With the increasing demands of data throughput, next-generation memory technologies have become crucial to keep up. This app note covers the full simulation to measurement workflow for DDR4 designs and beyond, starting with pre-layout simulation, to final compliance testing with the physical board.

2021.09.10

Application Notes 2021.09.09

Active Electrical Cable Technology for Keysight 400GE to 4x100GE with PAM4-to-NRZ Conversion

Active Electrical Cable Technology for Keysight 400GE to 4x100GE with PAM4-to-NRZ Conversion

Keysight’s AresONE, AresONE High Performance, AresONE-S, and K400 400GE test systems are the first to bridge the signaling gap between incompatible pulse amplitude modulation level 4 (PAM4) and non-return-to-zero (NRZ)-encoded signaling. Keysight 400GE AresONE, AresONE High Performance, AresONE-S, and K400 400GE test systems offer a new and unique innovative AEC cable technology that allows a single port of 400GE with PAM4 and KP4 FEC to test four ports of 100GE with NRZ and RS (528,514) FEC. RS (528,514) FEC is also known as KR4 FEC.

2021.09.09

Application Notes 2021.09.09

Getting the Most Out of Your X-Series Signal Analyzer

Getting the Most Out of Your X-Series Signal Analyzer

On-screen gesturing for the Multi-Touch GUI is like what is used for smart phones. On a smart phone you can use a single touch or swipe on the screen, or you can use more than one touch point at a time by pinching to zoom out or zoom in. Similar gesturing can be used on the analyzer to help quickly set up a measurement and adjust the center frequency, span, and reference level for the signal of interest. The X-Series Signal Analyzers utilize a capacitive display that allows for multiple touch points at a time. Prior to capacitive displays, older touch analyzers utilized resistive displays that only allowed for a single touch point at a time and replicated the functionality of a computer mouse. This application note will showcase key features of the Keysight X-Series Multi-touch Signal Analyzers.

2021.09.09

Application Notes 2021.09.07

Finding Sources of Jitter with Real-Time Jitter Measurement

Finding Sources of Jitter with Real-Time Jitter Measurement

Finding sources of jitter lies in the ability to time-correlate jitter measurement results with high speed serial data signals. A real-time oscilloscope with jitter analysis can help.

2021.09.07

Application Notes 2021.09.01

Charge-Injection-Capacity Measurements

Charge-Injection-Capacity Measurements

Electrodes for subcutaneous stimulation need to deliver current to neural tissue effectively and safely. Therefore, the required current to stimulate neural tissue must be known but is your electrode capable of this current? Here, we explore how we can measure the maximal reversible charge density of electrodes without causing irreversible Faraday reactions in a relevant amount by using the B2900-Series.

2021.09.01

Application Notes 2021.08.30

Jitter Solutions for Telecom, Enterprise, and Digital Designs

Jitter Solutions for Telecom, Enterprise, and Digital Designs

This brochure combines ""Jitter Solutions for Digital Circuits"" and ""Need to test jitter?"" brochures. It addresses Keysight's jitter solutions for telecom, enterprise, and digital applications. (Replaces 5988-8427EN & 5988-7051EN). This brochure will let the customer determine which Keysight solutions will meet their design/test needs.

2021.08.30

Application Notes 2021.08.29

Separating and Time-Correlating Deterministic Jitter Components

Separating and Time-Correlating Deterministic Jitter Components

Read practical tips on how to use a real-time oscilloscope with jitter analysis to separate and time-correlate specific deterministic jitter components.

2021.08.29

Application Notes 2021.08.26

Making Fast Pass/Fail Testing With BSA Spectrum Analyzers

Making Fast Pass/Fail Testing With BSA Spectrum Analyzers

This application note describes the advanced window limit feature in the N9320B and N932xC BSA spectrum analyzer and demonstrates how to use it to easily make the Pass/Fail determination on measurement results.

2021.08.26

Application Notes 2021.08.26

Low Frequency RFID Tag Characterization

Low Frequency RFID Tag Characterization

The application note describes the features of N9321/22C basic spectrum analyzer and how it helps with RFID tag characterization.

2021.08.26

Application Notes 2021.08.26

A Guide to Dynamic Frequency Selection Test

A Guide to Dynamic Frequency Selection Test

The Internet of Things (IoT) faces new compliance regulations and tests as its use grows at an astounding rate. Two primary factors are driving the increase in the type and number of tests imposed by regulatory agencies worldwide. The first factor is the interference resulting from various IoT devices sharing the limited free spectrum. The second driver is due to the allocation of new frequency bands for unlicensed use and the need to protect existing users from these new assignments. The new tests are more complex and time-consuming than the traditional tests for power, frequency, bandwidth, and other transmission characteristics. This application note explains how the dynamic frequency selection (DFS) test process protects incumbent radar systems operating in the 5 GHz industrial, scientific, and medical (ISM) band.

2021.08.26

Application Notes 2021.08.25

Investigating Implications of ITS-G5 and C-V2X Simultaneous Operation in Adjacent Channels

Investigating Implications of ITS-G5 and C-V2X Simultaneous Operation in Adjacent Channels

Automotive vehicle-to-everything (V2X) developers study channel co-existence issues, and potential interference risks caused by 3GPP-based cellular-V2X and ITS-G5 operating in the same 5.9 GHz band.

2021.08.25

Application Notes 2021.08.25

Jitter Fundamentals: Sources, Types, and Characteristics

Jitter Fundamentals: Sources, Types, and Characteristics

Understanding the sources, types, and characteristics of jitter measurements can help improve the transmission performance of designs. Learn Jitter basics.

2021.08.25

Application Notes 2021.08.23

Spectrum and Signal Analyzer Measurements and Noise

Spectrum and Signal Analyzer Measurements and Noise

Noise is the classical limitation of electronics. In this application note, the characteristics of noise and its direct measurement are discussed in detail.

2021.08.23

Application Notes 2021.08.17

Techniques for Precise Cable and Antenna Measurements in the Field

Techniques for Precise Cable and Antenna Measurements in the Field

This application note covers the practical techniques of cable and antenna testing. Learn the easy way to measure return loss and VSWR in a field or lab setting with FieldFox.

2021.08.17

Application Notes 2021.08.16

Non-Volatile Memory Devices Characterization

Non-Volatile Memory Devices Characterization

See how the Keysight CX3300 enables you to easily and accurately visualize true transient current waveform of non-volatile memory devices and materials.

2021.08.16

Application Notes 2021.08.16

High Power Amplifier Measurements Using Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer

High Power Amplifier Measurements Using Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer

Learn how to use Keysight’s nonlinear vector network analyzers (NVNA) to characterize the performance of high-power amplifiers.

2021.08.16

Application Notes 2021.08.04

Bypass Link Conveyor Built-in i7090 and i3070 In-Circuit Inline Tester

Bypass Link Conveyor Built-in i7090 and i3070 In-Circuit Inline Tester

The built-in bypass link conveyor in In-Circuit tester saves you the floor space and easy to setup at the manufacturing floor.

2021.08.04

Application Notes 2021.07.29

DOCSIS 3.1 PHY Layer Measurements

DOCSIS 3.1 PHY Layer Measurements

This paper describes RF tests for DOCSIS 3.1 CMTS and CM devices, and gives practical guidance for implementing them with Keysight DOCSIS 3.1 test equipment.

2021.07.29

Application Notes 2021.07.27

7 Hints for Precise Current Measurements

7 Hints for Precise Current Measurements

This application note explains 7 hints that can be undertaken in order to obtain more favorable current measurement with the CX3300.

2021.07.27

Application Notes 2021.07.22

Safe, Fast and Reproducible Testing of Battery Management Systems

Safe, Fast and Reproducible Testing of Battery Management Systems

BMS is a key component for the safety and operation of Lithium-ion batteries. For their development and verification, precise, safe, and reproducible tests of the relevant accuracy, functionality, and safety tests are needed. This paper presents how, based on the test requirements, a suitable test environment can be defined and the requirements on the components of the environment and the automation platform derived.

2021.07.22

Application Notes 2021.07.21

Regenerative Power Solution for Automotive Start-Stop Testing

Regenerative Power Solution for Automotive Start-Stop Testing

Keysight’s RP7900 regenerative power system helps you test automatic start-stop systems by recreating the power signal produced in a car during regular operation.

2021.07.21

Application Notes 2021.07.19

Expand i7090 Powering Capability

Expand i7090 Powering Capability

This document introduces how to use i7090 power relay board and how to expand power channel.

2021.07.19

Application Notes 2021.07.14

Vibration Noise Measurement of Refrigerator/Air Conditioner Compressor Using USB Data Acquisition Device

Vibration Noise Measurement of Refrigerator/Air Conditioner Compressor Using USB Data Acquisition Device

With Keysight USB DAQ device, analysis can be performed easily to understand the noise source, leading to improvement in noise damping.

2021.07.14

Application Notes 2021.07.14

Smart Data Clipping for LF Noise Measurement

Smart Data Clipping for LF Noise Measurement

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2021.07.14

Application Notes 2021.07.14

The Wi-Fi 6E Challenge in Regulatory Test

The Wi-Fi 6E Challenge in Regulatory Test

This application note explains the evolution of Wireless Standard Wi-Fi 6E in Regulatory test.

2021.07.14

Application Notes 2021.07.07

Understanding the Importance of Maximum Power Point Tracking Efficiency for Solar Inverters

Understanding the Importance of Maximum Power Point Tracking Efficiency for Solar Inverters

Maximum power point tracking efficiency (mmpt) is the metric used to ensure a solar inverter is operating at the maximum power point as often as possible. Read more.

2021.07.07

Application Notes 2021.07.07

IV Characterizations of Solar Cells Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

IV Characterizations of Solar Cells Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

This application note describes the characterization of solar cells using the B2900B/BL Precision Source/Measure Units.

2021.07.07

Application Notes 2021.07.05

Solutions for Measuring Permittivity and Permeability with LCR Meters and Impedance Analyzers

Solutions for Measuring Permittivity and Permeability with LCR Meters and Impedance Analyzers

This application note presents the technologies and methods for measuring permittivity and permeability. Learn more!

2021.07.05

Application Notes 2021.06.30

How to Select a Handheld DMM That is RIGHT for You

How to Select a Handheld DMM That is RIGHT for You

Choose the best handheld DMM that fits your need. This guide helps you in selecting the handheld DMM operations best-suited to your working environment.

2021.06.30

Application Notes 2021.06.30

Making Fast and Accurate Power Measurements with Absolute Confidence

Making Fast and Accurate Power Measurements with Absolute Confidence

Learn how to quickly and accurately measure the power of digitally modulated signals, maximize the capacity of your system and improve the quality of communication.

2021.06.30

Application Notes 2021.06.29

Measuring ACLR Performance in LTE Transmitters

Measuring ACLR Performance in LTE Transmitters

ACLR test is vital for LTE. ACLR test verifies that system transmitters are performing within specified limits. See how Keysight signal generators can help.

2021.06.29

Application Notes 2021.06.27

Measuring Pulsed/Transient Electrical Properties of OTFTs

Measuring Pulsed/Transient Electrical Properties of OTFTs

The Keysight B1530A WGFMU modules for B1500A combine fast current / voltage measurement and AWG functions to measure pulsed / transient electrical property of OTFT.

2021.06.27

Application Notes 2021.06.23

Ensuring Greater Confidence in Signal Analysis at 110 GHz and Beyond

Ensuring Greater Confidence in Signal Analysis at 110 GHz and Beyond

As you reach toward terahertz frequencies, it’s easy to underestimate the challenges that arise in design, simulation, measurement, and analysis. Compared with signals at baseband, RF, or microwave, those at 30 GHz, 300 GHz, or 1 THz behave quite differently. Download the application note and learn about measurement challenges and how to ensure measurement accuracy at 110 GHz and beyond.

2021.06.23

Application Notes 2021.06.20

Next Generation Curve Tracer Revolutionizes Failure Analysis

Next Generation Curve Tracer Revolutionizes Failure Analysis

This paper discusses power handling of the hot switching and cold switching of EM switches, and how to avoid catastrophic failure of the switches. Learn more.

2021.06.20

Application Notes 2021.06.17

Evaluating Oscilloscope Bandwidths for Your Application

Evaluating Oscilloscope Bandwidths for Your Application

How much bandwidth does your oscilloscope really need? Learn how to choose the correct bandwidth oscilloscope for your application.

2021.06.17

Application Notes 2021.06.15

CWDM and LWDM Components Wavelength and Polarization Test

CWDM and LWDM Components Wavelength and Polarization Test

Configuring test solutions for CWDM and LAN-WDM component test.

2021.06.15

Application Notes 2021.06.15

Compatibility of USB Power Sensors with Keysight Instruments

Compatibility of USB Power Sensors with Keysight Instruments

This application note explains how Keysight USB power sensors are compatible with Keysight network analyzers to perform source power calibration. Learn more!

2021.06.15

Application Notes 2021.06.08

Tips: How to Measure LF Noise of Ultra-Low Noise Device

Tips: How to Measure LF Noise of Ultra-Low Noise Device

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2021.06.08

Application Notes 2021.06.07

Vectorless Test: nanoVTEP vs VTEP

Vectorless Test: nanoVTEP vs VTEP

This application note summarizes some of the results of Vectorless Test Enhanced Probe (VTEP) early tests conducted at customer sites.

2021.06.07

Application Notes 2021.05.30

Techniques and Trends in Signal Monitoring, Frequency Management, and Geolocation of Wireless Emitters

Techniques and Trends in Signal Monitoring, Frequency Management, and Geolocation of Wireless Emitters

This application note reviews various issues, techniques and associated equipment required for signal monitoring and frequency management of RF spectrum in the VHF/UHF frequency range. The goals and automation requirements for various monitoring applications will be discussed and the concepts of implementing a distributed sensor network for determining the geolocation of a wireless “emitter” will be introduced.

2021.05.30

Application Notes 2021.05.30

Battery Drain Analysis for Low Power IoT Devices

Battery Drain Analysis for Low Power IoT Devices

Keysight battery drain analysis solutions enable engineers to get accurate and fast results of battery drain characterization on low power IoT Devices. Read more.

2021.05.30

Application Notes 2021.05.28

Conformance Testing of 800G Ethernet Links for the Data Center

Conformance Testing of 800G Ethernet Links for the Data Center

This application note will cover the changes in requirements between 400G and 800G electrical interfaces and how Keysight Technologies Transmitter and Receiver Conformance Test Solutions allow users to easily perform design validation testing and explore their design margins.

2021.05.28

Application Notes 2021.05.24

Measuring Battery Life on Battery - Powered Medical IoT Devices

Measuring Battery Life on Battery - Powered Medical IoT Devices

Batteries are increasingly important in Healthcare IoT. The Internet of Things (IoT) and modern connectivity technology increasingly connect healthcare and medical devices. In the Healthcare IoT, battery-powered wireless medical devices are increasingly prevalent in our daily lives. These Healthcare IoT devices include fitness bands and smart watches that monitor pulse and heart rate, blood pressure monitors, pacemakers, pulse oximeters, glucose monitors, thermometers, ultrasound hearing aids, insulin pumps, and many other devices that are currently being developed.

2021.05.24

Application Notes 2021.05.24

Infiniium EXR and MXR-Series Oscilloscopes: Quickly Find and Identify Hidden Signal Errors

Infiniium EXR and MXR-Series Oscilloscopes: Quickly Find and Identify Hidden Signal Errors

Troubleshooting and testing designs can be time-consuming on your oscilloscope if you do not know what you are looking for. Keysight's Fault Hunter feature automatically determines which sections of the signal are anomalies.

2021.05.24

Application Notes 2021.05.21

Validate Adaptivity on Wireless Devices with IOT0047A Regulatory Test Solution

Validate Adaptivity on Wireless Devices with IOT0047A Regulatory Test Solution

This paper covers background of wireless operations, regulations affecting those devices, and testing required to enable market access in various geographies.

2021.05.21

Application Notes 2021.05.20

Keysight IOT0047A for Internet of Things (IoT) Regulatory Test

Keysight IOT0047A for Internet of Things (IoT) Regulatory Test

This application note covers background of wireless operations, regulations affecting those devices, and testing required to enable market access.

2021.05.20

Application Notes 2021.05.19

5 Tips to Demodulate Wireless and Cellular Signals

5 Tips to Demodulate Wireless and Cellular Signals

This application note covers the basics of signal analysis and five useful tips to help customers leverage Keysight’s PathWave 89600 vector signal analysis (VSA) software. With a solid footing in digital signal processing, communications signals, and vector signal analysis, they will improve their RF detective skills, both during system design and on the R&D bench.

2021.05.19

Application Notes 2021.05.18

Make Simple DC Power Measurements with a Digital Multimeter

Make Simple DC Power Measurements with a Digital Multimeter

Learn tips and techniques using a Truevolt Series digital multimeter (DMM) to make simple DC power measurements.

2021.05.18

Application Notes 2021.05.18

Current Drain Analysis Enhances WLAN Network Card Design and Test

Current Drain Analysis Enhances WLAN Network Card Design and Test

Keysight DC sources and application software simplify measurement and analysis of current drain consumption on WLAN network cards.

2021.05.18

Application Notes 2021.05.10

Really Need Both Current-LNA and Voltage-LNA to Measure LF Noise?

Really Need Both Current-LNA and Voltage-LNA to Measure LF Noise?

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2021.05.10

Application Notes 2021.05.10

5 Practical Hints for Better Millimeter-Wave Signal Analysis

5 Practical Hints for Better Millimeter-Wave Signal Analysis

As you reach toward terahertz frequencies, it’s easy to underestimate the challenges that arise in design, simulation, measurement, and analysis. Take advantage of these 5 Hints to ensure that you've taken into consideration the impact of various decisions.

2021.05.10

Application Notes 2021.05.09

Using PathWave Vector Signal Analysis (89600 VSA) to Optimize 5G NR Measurements

Using PathWave Vector Signal Analysis (89600 VSA) to Optimize 5G NR Measurements

5G New Radio (NR) transmission features improve connectivity, network capacity, and data rates. 5G NR achieves high throughput via high-order modulation such as 256QAM. Error vector magnitude (EVM) is the most common method to evaluate the transmitted signal quality from base stations to mobile handsets (user equipment) and vice versa. To get a meaningful EVM measurement, customers must configure the analysis to reflect the intended transmitter channel configuration. This process can be challenging, as there are many knobs to turn and signal configuration parameters to set. Keysight’s PathWave Vector Signal Analysis (VSA) software offers flexibility on many parameters. This documents provides a sequence of steps for best practices on the VSA configuration.

2021.05.09

Application Notes 2021.04.29

L2 Security—MACsec

L2 Security—MACsec

This Black Book includes MACsec test methodologies based on IEEE standards.

2021.04.29

Application Notes 2021.04.28

Transient Optical Power Measurements with the N774-C Optical Power Meters

Transient Optical Power Measurements with the N774-C Optical Power Meters

This application note describes programming optical power meters to measure transient and time-dependent signals

2021.04.28

Application Notes 2021.04.27

Analyzing UXM IQ captures with the SJ001A WaveJudge Wireless Analyzer Toolset

Analyzing UXM IQ captures with the SJ001A WaveJudge Wireless Analyzer Toolset

This application note describes the process to import, decode, and troubleshoot UXM IQ captures. This is really useful to complement the capabilities of Keysight Network Emulation Solutions, and to adjudicate disputes created when multiple vendors’ products and analysis logs are contradictory, causing undue delays and increasing engineering expenses.

2021.04.27

Application Notes 2021.04.15

Accurate and Efficient Characterization of Power Devices at 3000 V/20 A

Accurate and Efficient Characterization of Power Devices at 3000 V/20 A

Learn how to use the Keysight B1505A Power Device Analyzer / Curve Tracer for accurate and efficient characterization of power devices at 3000 V/20 A.

2021.04.15

Application Notes 2021.04.15

5G Over-the-Air Performance Measurement

5G Over-the-Air Performance Measurement

This application note discusses the challenges RF engineers face when deploying 5G on mmWave and how the Fieldfox analyzer meets those challenges.

2021.04.15

Application Notes 2021.04.14

LF Noise Measurement of D/A Converter

LF Noise Measurement of D/A Converter

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2021.04.14

Application Notes 2021.04.13

5 Hints for Better Millimeter-Wave Signal Analysis

5 Hints for Better Millimeter-Wave Signal Analysis

As you reach toward terahertz frequencies, it’s easy to underestimate the challenges that arise in design, simulation, measurement, and analysis. Take advantage of these 5 Hints to ensure that you've taken into consideration the impact of various decisions.

2021.04.13

Application Notes 2021.04.12

Non-Contact Measurement for 13.56 MHz RFIDs

Non-Contact Measurement for 13.56 MHz RFIDs

This document gives an overview of how to perform non-contact measurements of the resonant frequencies of 13.56 MHz RFID tags. Learn more!

2021.04.12

Application Notes 2021.04.12

Power Handling Capability of Electromechanical Switches

Power Handling Capability of Electromechanical Switches

This paper discusses power handling of the hot switching and cold switching of EM switches, and how to avoid catastrophic failure of the switches. Learn more.

2021.04.12

Application Notes 2021.04.11

S8701A Protocol R&D Toolset for 5G NR Adversarial Testing

S8701A Protocol R&D Toolset for 5G NR Adversarial Testing

Application Note to support Protocol R&D Toolset application.

2021.04.11

Application Notes 2021.04.08

Equivalent Time Sampling Oscilloscope vs. Real-Time Oscilloscope

Equivalent Time Sampling Oscilloscope vs. Real-Time Oscilloscope

Equivalent time sampling scopes and real time sampling oscilloscopes have different trigger requirements and sample incoming waveforms differently. Learn more.

2021.04.08

Application Notes 2021.04.07

Making Your Best Power Integrity Measurements

Making Your Best Power Integrity Measurements

Improving efficiency or reducing power consumption is another reason to place tighter tolerances on power supplies. This application note covers several fundamental techniques for measuring and analyzing DC power supplies and discusses selection and evaluation of tools for DC power supply measurements.

2021.04.07

Application Notes 2021.04.07

IV and CV Measurement Using the B1500A MFCMU and SCUU

IV and CV Measurement Using the B1500A MFCMU and SCUU

This eight-page application note illustrates how an accurate IV and CV measurement system can be configured using the B1500A MFCMU and SCUU.

2021.04.07

Application Notes 2021.04.07

USB 2.0 Compliance Testing with Infiniium Oscilloscopes

USB 2.0 Compliance Testing with Infiniium Oscilloscopes

This application note discusses the solution for the USB 2.0 test suite. The Keysight solution is the only one-box solution that uses the official USB-IF scripts for precompliance and compliance testing.

2021.04.07

Application Notes 2021.04.06

Mitigating Interference in Automotive Radar Systems

Mitigating Interference in Automotive Radar Systems

This application note introducing testing methodologies for interference in FMCW radar.

2021.04.06

Application Notes 2021.04.04

Solutions for 802.11p Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments Measurements

Solutions for 802.11p Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments Measurements

This application note looks in detail at the 802.11p standard and at how 802.11p devices can be designed, tested and analyzed. Learn more.

2021.04.04

Application Notes 2021.03.30

The Power Handbook

The Power Handbook

This handbook is to provide a “one stop shop” for basic information on power related topics, and it incorporates information from many of our application notes.

2021.03.30

Application Notes 2021.03.30

Campus Visibility Deployment Guide

Campus Visibility Deployment Guide

A guide for designing and deploying a visibility infrastructure for a typical multisite campus. Learn about network packet brokers (NPB) and how to build a visibility architecture for your campus.

2021.03.30

Application Notes 2021.03.18

Understanding and Applying Probability of Intercept in Real-Time Spectrum Analysis

Understanding and Applying Probability of Intercept in Real-Time Spectrum Analysis

In real-time spectrum analysis, many user-adjustable parameters affect probability of intercept, which is the minimum duration of a signal that can be observed and measured with 100% probability.

2021.03.18

Application Notes 2021.03.18

Becoming Familiar with your Standard Oscilloscope Probe

Becoming Familiar with your Standard Oscilloscope Probe

Understand the behavior of oscilloscope probes, including theory of passive probe operation and oscilloscope probe compensation for precise measurements.

2021.03.18

Application Notes 2021.03.17

How to Maximize the Battery Life of Your Portable IoT Devices

How to Maximize the Battery Life of Your Portable IoT Devices

This application note shows the hardware (HW) and software (SW) components of the X8712A and how to put them together to use.

2021.03.17

Application Notes 2021.03.17

Challenges and Benefits of Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN)

Challenges and Benefits of Low Power Wide Area Network (LPWAN)

What is LPWAN? See the case study about LPWAN technologies and learn more about different LPWAN technologies and Keysight’s wide range of solutions for IoT Design.

2021.03.17

Application Notes 2021.03.17

Full Bypass Path for X-Series Signal Analyzers

Full Bypass Path for X-Series Signal Analyzers

The Full Bypass Path (FBP) combines the Low Noise Path (LNP) and Microwave Preselector Bypass (MPB) to improve error vector magnitude (EVM) performance when measuring wideband signals.

2021.03.17

Application Notes 2021.03.14

Testing Switch Mode Power Supplies Using the Infiniium EXR- and MXR-Series Oscilloscopes

Testing Switch Mode Power Supplies Using the Infiniium EXR- and MXR-Series Oscilloscopes

Understand and follow along on implementing the fundamental measurements of input, switching, and output analysis performed by the EXR- and MXR-series oscilloscopes using the optional power analysis software (P/N: D9010PWRA).

2021.03.14

Application Notes 2021.03.04

BER Measurement with Real-Time Oscilloscope Integrated in M8070B Software

BER Measurement with Real-Time Oscilloscope Integrated in M8070B Software

Going beyond the limits of BER measurement, industry’s first bit error ratio solution enabling BER measurement at and beyond 100 GBaud with both PAM4 and NRZ.

2021.03.04

Application Notes 2021.02.16

Four Tips for Making Better Power Rail Measurements

Four Tips for Making Better Power Rail Measurements

Get four tips to accurately test power distribution networks (PDNs) and make your best power rail measurements with an oscilloscope and power rail probe.

2021.02.16

Application Notes 2021.02.14

Triggering on Infrequent Anomalies and Complex Signals using Zone Trigger

Triggering on Infrequent Anomalies and Complex Signals using Zone Trigger

When debugging digital designs, it is often difficult-to-impossible to set up an oscilloscope totrigger on specific and unique signal problems. The Keysight Technologies, Inc. Zone Trigger, which is available as a standard feature in all InfiniiVision 3000T, 4000 and 6000 X-Series oscilloscopes, can be used in conjunction with conventional oscilloscope triggering to help zero-in on problem signals. If you can see the problem signal, then you can trigger on it using Zone Trigger.

2021.02.14

Application Notes 2021.02.09

Low-loss Materials Research in 5G Communications

Low-loss Materials Research in 5G Communications

Summary of low-loss materials research particularly in 5G. It includes all solution partner offering and ordering details.

2021.02.09

Application Notes 2021.02.06

Virtual Reference Design PathWave ADS Workspace for Transphorm tdttp4000w066c

Virtual Reference Design PathWave ADS Workspace for Transphorm tdttp4000w066c

This application note provides information to obtain and use a PathWave ADS workspace that you can use to simulate a virtual version of a physical reference design from Transphorm, Model tdttp4000w066c. This model showcases the gen IV GaN power transistors (TP65H035G4WS series) also from Transphorm.

2021.02.06

Application Notes 2021.02.04

Oscilloscope Sample Rates versus Sampling Fidelity

Oscilloscope Sample Rates versus Sampling Fidelity

Higher sample rate scopes are not always better. Learn more about Nyquist’s sampling and how to evaluate scope sample rates vs. signal fidelity for accurate results.

2021.02.04

Application Notes 2021.01.29

Effective Production Debugging with Actionable Insights

Effective Production Debugging with Actionable Insights

As the electronic manufacturing industry embraces digital transformation towards being a Smart factory, the abundance of test and measurement data generated from the production floor is a valuable source for advanced analytics to provide actionable insights that improve productivity and Overall Equipment Efficiency (OEE). Being an engineer supporting manufacturing production myself, I fully understand the pressure and challenge one can face during New Product Introduction (NPI) stage and Mass Production Run (MR) stage. An engineer these days have limited time and resources (like allocation of equipment and number of boards) to complete the test debug to release to mass production. Thereafter, to support production mode and sustain the high level of First Pass Yield (FPY) and product quality.

2021.01.29

Application Notes 2021.01.28

PathWave Waveform Analytics Reduce IC Validation Cycle by Half

PathWave Waveform Analytics Reduce IC Validation Cycle by Half

PathWave Waveform Analytics software provides users the solution to perform IC validation, with reduction by half or more. It processes huge amount of waveform data, digest and present suggested anomaly among the seas of waveform data, from high overview to detail level.

2021.01.28

Application Notes 2021.01.27

Keysight Digital Test Apps Measurement Server Feature

Keysight Digital Test Apps Measurement Server Feature

The Keysight Measurement Server feature enables a compliance application to generate test results more quickly by dividing up tasks among multiple machines. The application note outlines the details on setting up the measurement server on an automated test system environment.

2021.01.27

Application Notes 2021.01.26

Evaluate Self-Discharge of Lithium-Ion Cells in a Fraction of the Time Traditionally Required

Evaluate Self-Discharge of Lithium-Ion Cells in a Fraction of the Time Traditionally Required

This application note introduces a new way to determine a Lithium battery's self-discharge by measuring its self-discharge current allows batteries to be identified and isolated quickly.

2021.01.26

Application Notes 2021.01.24

Determining the Boundary Line between Normal Versus Excessive Self-Discharge on Lithium-Ion Cells

Determining the Boundary Line between Normal Versus Excessive Self-Discharge on Lithium-Ion Cells

Testing self-discharge on lithium-ion cells in manufacturing is done for good reason. It indicates defects that may lead to catastrophic failure. Statistics define boundary line between good and bad.

2021.01.24

Application Notes 2021.01.24

Noise Figure Measurement Accuracy: The Y-Factor Method

Noise Figure Measurement Accuracy: The Y-Factor Method

This app note discusses the fundamentals of noise figure measurement using Y-factor method and how to avoid noise figure mistakes.

2021.01.24

Application Notes 2021.01.18

Quick Tips To Improve Network Troubleshooting

Quick Tips To Improve Network Troubleshooting

Download this Application Note to see how you can quickly improve your troubleshooting activities to: 1. Reduce the need and quantity of Change Board approvals. 2. Capture more precise data for monitoring tools. 3. Implement better techniques like data filtration and floating filters.

2021.01.18

Application Notes 2021.01.17

Virtual Reference Design from ROHM

Virtual Reference Design from ROHM

This application note provides information to obtain and use a PathWave ADS workspace that you can use to simulate a virtual version of a physical reference design from ROHM, Model P01SCT2080KE-EVK-001.

2021.01.17

Application Notes 2021.01.07

VCSEL Laser Testing for 3D Sensing

VCSEL Laser Testing for 3D Sensing

In LIV testing, current is swept through the VCSEL. Explore the challenges of LIV testing and how to perform VCSEL laser testing using the B2900A SMUs.

2021.01.07

Application Notes 2020.12.30

PMA Anomaly Detection Model: More Than Just off-the-Shelf ML Algorithms

PMA Anomaly Detection Model: More Than Just off-the-Shelf ML Algorithms

Smart Factory big data analytics platform collected massive amounts of test and measurement data to product actionable insights. One of these insights would be test and measurement anomalies that may be a prediction of deteriorating product quality that may be due to parts, process or people. And the industry may be oblivious to the serious challenges from ‘alert fatigue’. In this paper, we will highlight the desired outcome and performance of our proprietary anomaly detection algorithm and alert scoring machine learning model that automatically rates, categorizes and filters the anomaly alerts by severity of a potential quality incidence.

2020.12.30

Application Notes 2020.12.17

The Essential Guide to Receiver Calibration

The Essential Guide to Receiver Calibration

The U9361 RCal receiver calibrator allows you to achieve more precise measurements in signal analysis. Learn how to use this patented product to move the measurement plane of reference to your DUT.

2020.12.17

Application Notes 2020.12.17

IxOS / IxNetwork Synchronization Architectures

IxOS / IxNetwork Synchronization Architectures

Large scale tests require many different chassis, load modules, and ports to support these tests. All these devices need to be on the same time reference for the testing to be meaningful.

2020.12.17

Application Notes 2020.12.14

Testing dual-band GPS receiver with Signal Studio N7609C

Testing dual-band GPS receiver with Signal Studio N7609C

This is the application note for Testing dual-band GPS receiver with Signal Studio N7609C.

2020.12.14

Application Notes 2020.12.09

Device Modeling Solution for Quantum Computing

Device Modeling Solution for Quantum Computing

Instead of CMOS technology in classical computers, the heart of quantum computing is the qubit. However, device modeling will still be used in different components of the quantum computing system. In this paper, we discuss device modeling applications, challenges, and solutions in the world of quantum computing.

2020.12.09

Application Notes 2020.12.03

B1505A Power Device Analyzer/Curve Tracer

B1505A Power Device Analyzer/Curve Tracer

Combining a B1505A power device analyzer/curve tracer with HCSMU and EasyEXPERT extends power device measurement ranges and simplifies programming tasks.

2020.12.03

Application Notes 2020.12.03

PathWave Manufacturing Analytics – Test Time Distribution

PathWave Manufacturing Analytics – Test Time Distribution

This describes the Test Time Distribution methodology employed into PathWave Manufacturing Application that gives a near real-time estimate of the product yield.

2020.12.03

Application Notes 2020.11.28

Sourcing Clean Voltage Using B2961B/62B

Sourcing Clean Voltage Using B2961B/62B

This application note shows excellent low noise output capability of the B2961B/62B Power Source with external filters by monitoring the outputs through the oscilloscope through the lab exercises.

2020.11.28

Application Notes 2020.11.27

Bipolar Transistor Characterization Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

Bipolar Transistor Characterization Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

This application note describes the characterization of bipolar transistors using the B2900B/BL Precision Source/Measure Units.

2020.11.27

Application Notes 2020.11.26

Precise Low Resistance Measurements Using the B2961B and 34420A

Precise Low Resistance Measurements Using the B2961B and 34420A

This application note describes how to find the optimal test current for precise low resistance measurement using the B2961B Low Noise Power Source in conjunction with the 34420A Nano Volt/Micro Ohm Meter.

2020.11.26

Application Notes 2020.11.23

Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) Measurement of Advanced MOSFET using B1500A WGFMU Module

Random Telegraph Noise (RTN) Measurement of Advanced MOSFET using B1500A WGFMU Module

This application note describes random telegraph noise (RTN) measurement in advanced MOSFETs using the B1500A’s WGFMU module and shows actual measurement examples.

2020.11.23

Application Notes 2020.11.17

Resistance Measurements Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

The Keysight B2900B/BL Series Precision SMU enables you to accurately and easily measure the resistance with a variety of features to address the issues on resistance measurements.

2020.11.17

Application Notes 2020.11.12

LED IV Measurements Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

LED IV Measurements Using the B2900B/BL Series of SMUs

Learn how to perform LED IV measurement using the B2900B/BL series of precision source/measure units (SMUs) to debug and characterize a wide variety of devices.

2020.11.12

Application Notes 2020.11.11

LIV Test of VCSEL for 3D Sensing

LIV Test of VCSEL for 3D Sensing

This application note explains what the challenges on an LIV characterization is, how the Keysight B2900B/BL SMU can overcome them, and show examples to make LIV measurements.

2020.11.11

Application Notes 2020.11.09

Infiniium Oscilloscopes with 89600 VSA Software

Infiniium Oscilloscopes with 89600 VSA Software

Learn the characteristics, setup, and operation of an Infiniium Series oscilloscope and the 89600 VSA software to provide broadband vector signal analysis.

2020.11.09

Application Notes 2020.10.26

The Parametric Measurement Handbook 4th Edition

The Parametric Measurement Handbook 4th Edition

The parametric measurement handbook is a comprehensive reference text covering all aspects of parametric test. It contains over 250 pages of information helpful to both novice and advanced users.

2020.10.26

Application Notes 2020.10.25

How to Troubleshoot Losing Heart Beat Issue on i3070

How to Troubleshoot Losing Heart Beat Issue on i3070

Losing Heart Beat (LHB) is a common i3070 system failure and is very difficult to troubleshoot. This application note explains how the heartbeat is monitored in the system and what are the potential causes of it, and finally, the troubleshooting strategy.

2020.10.25

Application Notes 2020.10.22

Metrology Measurements with the N5531X Measuring Receiver

Metrology Measurements with the N5531X Measuring Receiver

The N5531X Measuring Receiver can help you make more accurate measurements for calibrating SG and RF attenuators in metrology and calibration lab environments.

2020.10.22

Application Notes 2020.10.10

Radar Development Using Model-Based Engineering

Radar Development Using Model-Based Engineering

Learn MBE techniques for radar development and how SystemVue, a set of simulation and modeling tools from Keysight, can work together to support MBE.

2020.10.10

Application Notes 2020.10.09

Spectrum Analysis Basics (AN150)

Spectrum Analysis Basics (AN150)

Spectrum Analysis Basics teaches the fundamentals of spectrum analyzers and spectrum analysis including the latest advances in spectrum analyzer capabilities.

2020.10.09

Application Notes 2020.10.02

Solutions for Creating and Analyzing Custom OFDM Waveforms for Software-Defined Radio (SDR)

Solutions for Creating and Analyzing Custom OFDM Waveforms for Software-Defined Radio (SDR)

This paper proposes solutions to address the problem of generating and analyzing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ODDM) waveforms. Learn more.

2020.10.02

Application Notes 2020.09.24

Optical Spectral Analysis

Optical Spectral Analysis

This application note is intended to provide the reader with a basic understanding of optical spectrum analyzers, their technologies, specifications, and applications.

2020.09.24

Application Notes 2020.09.22

Explore the SERDES design space using the IBIS AMI channel simulation flow

Explore the SERDES design space using the IBIS AMI channel simulation flow

Find out why you can’t use SPICE for today’s SERDES design and why using IBIS AMI channel simulation for SERDES is better than other techniques.

2020.09.22

Application Notes 2020.09.21

Simulating High-Speed Serial Channels with IBIS-AMI Models

Simulating High-Speed Serial Channels with IBIS-AMI Models

This paper reviews some of the benefits and limitations of using IBIS models and introduces the new AMI extensions to the latest IBIS version 5.0 specification.

2020.09.21

Application Notes 2020.09.21

Using Clock Jitter Analysis to Reduce BER in Serial Data Applications

Using Clock Jitter Analysis to Reduce BER in Serial Data Applications

Learn emerging techniques for reference clock jitter analysis for serial data systems and use clock jitter to reduce the bit error ratio (BER) in applications.

2020.09.21

Application Notes 2020.09.10

Creating Multi-Emitter Scenarios for Radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) Testing

Creating Multi-Emitter Scenarios for Radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) Testing

Part 8 of the Radar App Note series focuses on multi-emitter testing of radar and electronic warfare (EW) systems. Realistic testing of these systems depends on the generation of signals that accurately simulate multi-emitter environments consisting of thousands of emitters and millions of pulses per second, all arriving from multiple directions. New technology built into commercial, off-the-shelf signal generators enables developers to generate increasingly complex simulations that get closer to reality and provide deeper confidence in EW system performance.

2020.09.10

Application Notes 2020.09.07

Characterizing Superconducting Qubits

Characterizing Superconducting Qubits

Over the past two decades, superconducting quantum circuits have transitioned from basic research into a prominent industrial and academic platform for quantum computers. Subsequent improvements in coherence times, gate fidelities, and scalability have also motivated hardware manufacturers to enter into the quantum ecosystem. By supplying classical control hardware tailored towards quantum applications, engineers are enabled to push the quantum processor performance to higher levels.

2020.09.07

Application Notes 2020.09.06

Power Sensor Electrical Overstress (EOS) Failure Verification Guideline

Power Sensor Electrical Overstress (EOS) Failure Verification Guideline

Learn the measurement technique of Time Domain Reflectometry (TDR) to verify power sensor failure due to overpowering.

2020.09.06

Application Notes 2020.09.01

Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) Functional and Performance Verification with Keysight Nemo Tools

Dynamic Spectrum Sharing (DSS) Functional and Performance Verification with Keysight Nemo Tools

This application note provides an overview of DSS implications for mobile network operators. It introduces a Keysight solution for DSS end-to-end testing and performance verification.

2020.09.01

Application Notes 2020.08.26

Fast Power Measurements for X-Series Signal Analyzers

Fast Power Measurements for X-Series Signal Analyzers

By using FP2, measurement times are significantly decreased and repeatability for a given acquisition time is improved when compared to traditional sweep-based power measurements.

2020.08.26

Application Notes 2020.08.25

Using the Keysight Vector Modulation Analysis Measurement Application to Analyze Complex Signals

Using the Keysight Vector Modulation Analysis Measurement Application to Analyze Complex Signals

N9054EM0E Vector Modulation Analysis (VMA) is a general-purpose measurement application which allow customers configure the signal with two segments for analyzing complex signals like DVB-S2 or DVB-S2X signals. It includes measurement traces for raw main time, spectrum, EVM time spectrum, and insightful modulation quality metrics such as EVM or MER.

2020.08.25

Application Notes 2020.08.25

Making Conducted and Radiated Emissions Measurements

Making Conducted and Radiated Emissions Measurements

Explore an overview of radiated and conducted emissions measurements as well as a methodology for EMI precompliance testing.

2020.08.25

Application Notes 2020.08.24

Spectrum Analysis and the Frequency Domain

Spectrum Analysis and the Frequency Domain

This application note gives an introduction to spectrum analysis, covers the basic functions of a spectrum analyzer, and explains how to make spectrum measurements. Follow along at home with this hands-on measurement tutorial.

2020.08.24

Application Notes 2020.08.20

Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials

Basics of Measuring the Dielectric Properties of Materials

The dielectric properties covered in this app note are permittivity and permeability. Read more about the fundamentals of dielectric property measurements.

2020.08.20

Application Notes 2020.08.20

Electronics for Trapped Ion Control

Electronics for Trapped Ion Control

Quantum experiments on trapped atomic ions have demonstrated excellent coherence times and high fidelity gate operations. This makes the platform well-suited for the engineering of quantum computing devices and also presents a set of challenges to the classical electronics that control these systems. In this app note, first we will explore some of the ways trapped ion researchers are implementing quantum control in their labs today. Additionally, we will demonstrate how a deeper integration between the control electronics and FPGAs can enable more digital signal processing on hardware to resolve additional issues at all scales of a quantum experiment.

2020.08.20

Application Notes 2020.08.20

Quantum Computing

Quantum Computing

In this application note, we introduce some of the key concepts that are used for quantum information processing, namely qubit superposition states and quantum measurements, decoherence, entanglement and quantum interference.

2020.08.20

Application Notes 2020.08.16

Photodiode Test Using the Keysight B2980A Series

Photodiode Test Using the Keysight B2980A Series

This technical overview shows how to use Keysight’s B2985A/87A’s advanced features to make photodiode testing ideal and easy. Learn more.

2020.08.16

Application Notes 2020.08.12

PXI Interoperability — Achieve Multi-Vendor Interoperability with PXI Test Systems

PXI Interoperability — Achieve Multi-Vendor Interoperability with PXI Test Systems

Application note describes mechanical, electrical, and software compatibility for PXI instruments sourced from different vendors.

2020.08.12

Application Notes 2020.08.11

Process Capability Index (CPK) in i3070

Process Capability Index (CPK) in i3070

Guideline to set the right CPK target in i3070 test.

2020.08.11

Application Notes 2020.08.08

Direct Radar Signal Generation and Acquisition – Part 3

Direct Radar Signal Generation and Acquisition – Part 3

Generation and detection of radar signals have changed dramatically in the past 30 years. Today’s digital signal processing capabilities offer a wide range of possibilities to simulate radar signals and include simulated objects to verify the performance of a radar system.

2020.08.08

Application Notes 2020.08.05

Using BenchVue Software’s Test Flow Application to Characterize Transistors

Using BenchVue Software’s Test Flow Application to Characterize Transistors

Learn how to make a simple transistor curve tracer using Keysight’s BenchVue Test Flow app previously unavailable in common curve tracer hardware.

2020.08.05

Application Notes 2020.08.04

Transition from 66xx to N67xx Series on i3070 In-Circuit Test Systems

Transition from 66xx to N67xx Series on i3070 In-Circuit Test Systems

This application note provides technical details on the major differences between the Keysight 662xA and N67xx DUT power supplies used in Keysight i3070 ICT system, in order to help users develop new or migrate existing programs to the new systems.

2020.08.04

Application Notes 2020.08.04

Enable 1/f Noise Measurement Over 1A

Enable 1/f Noise Measurement Over 1A

The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with Keysight’s WaferPro Express software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

2020.08.04

Application Notes 2020.07.29

Validating Network Suitability for Voice and Video Services in a Live Network

Validating Network Suitability for Voice and Video Services in a Live Network

Participants in global financial markets face interesting challenges in delivering voice and video services. Their teams are often geographically diverse, spanning multiple countries and an even greater number of different service providers. Technological sea changes such as the widespread migration from MPLS to SD-WAN contribute to the challenge. Synthetic or active performance monitoring solutions such as Hawkeye can help ensure that the network is ready to power demanding applications such as voice and video in such an environment.

2020.07.29

Application Notes 2020.07.23

Understanding FMCW Automotive Radar

Understanding FMCW Automotive Radar

In this application note, we will look at frequency modulated continuous waveform (FMCW) radar technology in detail, particularly the wideband 76-81 GHz range. We will describe how you can use Keysight’s solutions to test your designs to ensure maximum efficiency, reliability, repeatability, and most importantly, ensure that your devices work to the highest safety standards possible.

2020.07.23

Application Notes 2020.07.22

S-Parameter Design

S-Parameter Design

Learn practical S-parameter design techniques for RF and microwave applications to assist continued development of new high frequency circuit designs.

2020.07.22

Application Notes 2020.07.17

De-Embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer

De-Embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks Using a Vector Network Analyzer

Explore the techniques of de-embedding and embedding S-parameter networks with a DUT. The error coefficients can be modified using the error-correcting algorithms of the VNA.

2020.07.17

Application Notes 2020.07.13

New i3070 Series 6 is 1.5x faster!

New i3070 Series 6 is 1.5x faster!

This application note summarizes some of the results of Vectorless Test Enhanced Probe (VTEP) early tests conducted at customer sites.

2020.07.13

Application Notes 2020.07.13

Signal Analysis Measurement Fundamentals

Signal Analysis Measurement Fundamentals

Learn measurement fundamentals to optimize your signal analysis for greater insights.

2020.07.13

Application Notes 2020.07.10

Impedance Measurement Handbook

Impedance Measurement Handbook

This handbook introduces the basics of impedance measurements using Keysight's LCR meters and impedance analyzers. Learn some great impedance measurement techniques!

2020.07.10

Application Notes 2020.07.06

Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis

Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis

Review the fundamental principles of vector network analysis and its use, including scattering parameters (S-parameters) and RF transmission line measurements.

2020.07.06

Application Notes 2020.07.05

Making Time Domain Measurement with Pulsed Source Using SMU

Making Time Domain Measurement with Pulsed Source Using SMU

This SMU demo guide shows how easily you can make a time domain measurement with sourcing pulsed current or voltage using the B2900A Series SMU step by step.

2020.07.05

Application Notes 2020.06.29

Direct Radar Signal Generation and Acquisition – Part 1

Direct Radar Signal Generation and Acquisition – Part 1

Generation and detection of radar signals have changed dramatically in the past 30 years. Today’s digital signal processing capabilities offer a wide range of possibilities to simulate radar signals and include simulated objects to verify the performance of a radar system.

2020.06.29

Application Notes 2020.06.25

IVI-COM Driver and VISA-COM I/O Programming Examples in Microsoft Visual C#

IVI-COM Driver and VISA-COM I/O Programming Examples in Microsoft Visual C#

This paper details the installation instructions and Visual C# (C-sharp) programming examples for Keysight Technologies IVI-COM instrument drivers and VISA-COM I/O. This application note will demonstrate examples from the N4965A multi-channel BERT controller and the N4962A serial BERT 12.5 Gb/s.

2020.06.25

Application Notes 2020.06.25

Direct Radar Signal Generation and Acquisition – Part 2

Direct Radar Signal Generation and Acquisition – Part 2

Application note on modern ways to create radar signals

2020.06.25

Application Notes 2020.06.24

Carrier Ethernet

Carrier Ethernet

The tests in this book detail methodologies to verify the performance of Carrier Ethernet service enabling protocols. Subjects include Provider Bridges, Provider Backbone Bridges, Link OAM, Service OAM, E-LMI and Y.1564.

2020.06.24

Application Notes 2020.06.24

Network Convergence Testing

Network Convergence Testing

This Network Convergence Testing booklet provides various measuring techniques designed to characterize how quickly the DUT recovers from routes convergence or fail-over. It covers the relevant industry standards and explains how to apply them to obtain consistent benchmark test results.

2020.06.24

Application Notes 2020.06.24

Application Delivery

Application Delivery

The focus of these test cases is to provide hands-on guidance on how to set up and execute a series of related tests that assess the impact on the performance of a unified security device when enabling application and content-aware features.

2020.06.24

Application Notes 2020.06.24

Automotive Ethernet

Automotive Ethernet

Ethernet is fast emerging as that single shared medium as recent technology developments make Ethernet viable for use in cars. The Ethernet used in automobiles has different electrical requirements (EMI/RFI emissions and susceptibility) and is known as Automotive Ethernet. Automotive Ethernet is not only for the “luxury” car market trends indicate that a significant majority of car manufacturers are planning to move to Ethernet for all classes of cars. This Black Book includes functionality and impairment methodologies that can be used to verify device and system functionality and performance. The methodologies are universally applicable to any test equipment. Step-by-step implementation examples using Ixia's test platforms and applications are included to demonstrate the art of the possible.

2020.06.24

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Long Term Evolution – Evolved Packet Core Network

Long Term Evolution – Evolved Packet Core Network

This document covers the Long Term Evolution (LTE) wireless technology. The document presents a general overview of LTE technology market followed by a focused discussion on Evolved Packet Core (EPC) testing. It also includes multiple test cases based on Ixia's IxLoad application. LTE Access is detailed in its own black book.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Ethernet Synchronization

Ethernet Synchronization

This document presents a thorough methodology for testing timing and synchronization over packet-based networks. Ethernet synchronization technologies, such as IEEE1588v2 Precision Time Protocol (PTP) and Synchronous Ethernet (SyncE) are discussed in depth. Key scenarios describe synchronization protocols and clock quality testing of timing enabled networks and devices.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Disaggregated Network Testing — Validating White-Box Switched Networks

Disaggregated Network Testing — Validating White-Box Switched Networks

The massive number of users and services supported by social media, public cloud, and carrier’s migration to network function virtualization (NFV) have driven the networking infrastructure toward disaggregation – the separation of hardware (white box switch) and software (network operating system). This black book explains the test methodology required to fully qualify hyperscale network infrastructure based on disaggregated design.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

802.11ac Wi-Fi Benchmarking

802.11ac Wi-Fi Benchmarking

This black book provides an overview of 802.11ac Wi-Fi technology and shows detailed methodology and procedures to measure the performance of 802.11ac access points (AP).

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

MPLS-TP

MPLS-TP

This Black Book provides an introduction to the MPLS-TP technology, its motivation, and its business drivers. It presents a summary of MPLS-TP key features and some of the typical implementation challenges. It then details common test scenarios along with step-by-step procedures by using Ixia IxNetwork to achieve the test objectives.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Practical Temperature Measurements

Practical Temperature Measurements

Learn practical tips to get an accurate temperature measurement, as well as how Keysight measurement systems help you to get a reliable measurement result.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Time Domain Analysis Using a Network Analyzer

Time Domain Analysis Using a Network Analyzer

Time domain analysis is useful for impedance measurement and for evaluating a device problem. Learn how to apply the time domain display with network analyzers.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Network Impairment

Network Impairment

This book provides use cases where network emulation is used to validate and verify the performance of services, applications, or devices under real-world network conditions. Included in this document are pertinent use cases, recommendations, and guidelines for emulating real-world networks in a lab test bed.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

SDN/OpenFlow

SDN/OpenFlow

Software Defined Networking (SDN) is a revolutionary capability to speed network deployments by virtualizing server and storage infrastructure in the modern data center. Validating the functionality and performance of SDN implementations, especially those in Open Flow, requires an in-depth understanding of how they work and are implemented. This Black Book includes functionality and impairment methodologies that can be used to verify device and system functionality and performance. The methodologies are universally applicable to any test equipment. Step-by-step implementation examples using Ixia's test platforms and applications are included to demonstrate the art of the possible.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Voice over IP

Voice over IP

The integration of VoIP creates huge cost savings for enterprises and for service providers. The savings can come from a number of different sources. For example, calls made over private data networks bypass PSTN network toll circuits, avoiding regulatory and per call charges. This Black Book includes functionality, pentesting, and impairment methodologies that can be used to verify device and system functionality and performance. The methodologies are universally applicable to any test equipment. Step-by-step implementation examples using Ixia's test platforms and applications are included to demonstrate the art of the possible.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Test Automation

Test Automation

Test automation is a key ingredient in bringing complex, robust switching and routing equipment to market quickly and cost-effectively. All aspects of the testing life cycle, including feature test, system test, and regression test can benefit from increased consistency and increased speed derived from test automation. This Black Book includes functionality and impairment methodologies that can be used to verify device and system functionality and performance. The methodologies are universally applicable to any test equipment. Step-by-step implementation examples using Ixia's test platforms and applications are included to demonstrate the art of the possible.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Quality of Service Validation

Quality of Service Validation

This document provides baseline test execution plans for running common QoS testing scenarios. It offers a comprehensive set of recommendations and guidelines for running test cases against various QoS policy implementations.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.23

Network Security Black Book

Network Security Black Book

Network security is essential for homes, government organizations, and enterprises of all sizes. It is a strategy designed to protect the network infrastructure and the data traversing it. The number and types of attacks are enormous and the devices used to defend against them are necessarily complex. This book provides an overview of network security and covers test methodologies that can be used to validate the effectiveness, accuracy, and performance of network security devices, policies, and processes. By combining a realistic mix of legitimate application traffic emulation and a comprehensive set of threat vectors, these methodologies are designed to help network operators and security professionals find the right balance between application performance and security in today’s hyper-scale, dynamic world.

2020.06.23

Application Notes 2020.06.19

Accurate Absolute and Relative Power Measurements Using the Keysight N5531S Measuring Receiver System

Accurate Absolute and Relative Power Measurements Using the Keysight N5531S Measuring Receiver System

This application note is very useful in explaining measurement accuracy of the N5531S system, for tuned RF level measurements.

2020.06.19

Application Notes 2020.06.18

Latency in Automotive Ethernet Switches

Latency in Automotive Ethernet Switches

Automotive Ethernet systems rely on speed and timing. Knowing the latency of the overall network is critical. See how to utilize Keysight protocol decode and triggering application to measure the latency in your switch.

2020.06.18

Application Notes 2020.06.16

Synthetic Latency Measurement with TradeVision

Synthetic Latency Measurement with TradeVision

Latency of trading networks is a key operational parameter. With synthetic latency measurement, Keysight TradeVision can deliver nano second level latency measurements on WAN connections between two or more geographically diverse sites.

2020.06.16

Application Notes 2020.06.16

10 Hints for Making Better Network Analyzer Measurements

10 Hints for Making Better Network Analyzer Measurements

Topics discussed include: measuring high-power amplifiers, compensating for time delay in cable measurements, improving reflection measurements, using frequency-offset for mixer, converter, tuner measurements, etc.

2020.06.16

Application Notes 2020.06.15

A400GE-QDD Recommended Tap Settings for Link Operation

A400GE-QDD Recommended Tap Settings for Link Operation

This application note provides recommended transmit pre-emphasis tap settings for quad small form factor plug gable double density (QSFP-DD) multi-source agreement (MSA) compliant optical transceivers and passive copper direct attached cables (DAC) for the A400 test system. Specific examples are provided for the device under test (DUT) transmitter as well.

2020.06.15

Application Notes 2020.06.14

Electronic Warfare Signal Generation: Technologies and Methods

Electronic Warfare Signal Generation: Technologies and Methods

Learn about the available technological approaches for EW signal and environment simulation, and the latest progress in flexible, high-fidelity solutions.

2020.06.14

Application Notes 2020.06.05

Accelerate the Validation of a Power Management Integrated Circuit with Anomalous Waveform Analytics

Accelerate the Validation of a Power Management Integrated Circuit with Anomalous Waveform Analytics

PMIC designers can accelerate validation and improve product reliability by identifying anomalous events using CX3300A’s anomalous waveform analytics.

2020.06.05

Application Notes 2020.06.03

Using Measurement Sensor

Using Measurement Sensor

There are several methodologies to detect the correctness of board placement on the test fixture. One of the method is to use the measurement sensor to prevent the board get damage.

2020.06.03

Application Notes 2020.05.26

Low-Cost Power Sources Meet ADC and VCO Characterization Requirements

Low-Cost Power Sources Meet ADC and VCO Characterization Requirements

See how the low-cost Keysight B2961A / B2962A 6.5 digit power sources can characterize 14-bit ADC circuits and VCOs requiring a 10 microvolt RMS noise floor.

2020.05.26

Application Notes 2020.05.24

Precise Low Resistance Measurements Using the B2961A and 34420A

Precise Low Resistance Measurements Using the B2961A and 34420A

Learn methods of measuring low resistance and how to find the optimal test current by using Keysight’s B2961A in conjunction with the 34420A.

2020.05.24

Application Notes 2020.05.22

Massive MIMO Testing with PROPSIM 5G Channel Emulation Solution

Massive MIMO Testing with PROPSIM 5G Channel Emulation Solution

5G massive MIMO base station testing using Keysight's PROPSIM 5G channel emulation solution.

2020.05.22

Application Notes 2020.05.21

IoT Wireless Technologies Guide

IoT Wireless Technologies Guide

This guide provides an overview of various IoT wireless technologies include short range, long range technologies and licensed or unlicensed operations.

2020.05.21

Application Notes 2020.05.19

Differences in Application Between Power Dividers and Power Splitters

Differences in Application Between Power Dividers and Power Splitters

This application note presents the characteristics of power splitters and power dividers and gives an overview of the different applications they are used in.

2020.05.19

Application Notes 2020.05.17

High-Accuracy Noise Figure Measurements with Network Analyzers

High-Accuracy Noise Figure Measurements with Network Analyzers

What is noise figure? Explore the importance of noise figure measurement accuracy and how to fulfill high accuracy noise figure measurements with network analyzers.

2020.05.17

Application Notes 2020.05.13

What is Frequency Response Analysis

What is Frequency Response Analysis

Learn what frequency response analysis is and why it is so important with today’s electronics to ensure performance requirements are met.

2020.05.13

Application Notes 2020.05.12

Transmitter Test: Overcoming Five Fundamental Challenges

Transmitter Test: Overcoming Five Fundamental Challenges

Learn how to address five fundamental challenges in the development of wireless receivers.

2020.05.12

Application Notes 2020.05.12

Receiver Test: Overcoming Five Fundamental Challenges

Receiver Test: Overcoming Five Fundamental Challenges

Learn how to address five fundamental challenges in the development of wireless receivers.

2020.05.12

Application Notes 2020.04.30

Scienlab Charging Discovery System – Verification of Interoperability of all EV and EVSE Charging Interfaces

Scienlab Charging Discovery System – Verification of Interoperability of all EV and EVSE Charging Interfaces

The Scienlab Charging Discovery System from Keysight is a modular solution for conformance and interoperability testing of EV/EVSE charging interfaces.

2020.04.30

Application Notes 2020.04.27

Oscilloscope Basics

Oscilloscope Basics

This paper provides an overview of oscilloscope basics. You will learn what an oscilloscope is and how to use an oscilloscope to improve your measurements.

2020.04.27

Application Notes 2020.04.24

Better Satellite Link Distortion Testing Using Spectral Correlation Method

Better Satellite Link Distortion Testing Using Spectral Correlation Method

Satellite system designers need to find ways to reduce signal distortion or work around it. This application note explains how to make accurate, insightful measurements as the first step to solve the problem.

2020.04.24

Application Notes 2020.04.22

How to Test USB Power Delivery Over Type-C

How to Test USB Power Delivery Over Type-C

USB Type-C power delivery creates possibilities for USB connected devices with higher, bi-directional power and power for non-USB devices with ALT mode. Learn more about verification/compliance.

2020.04.22

Application Notes 2020.04.21

PathWave Manufacturing Analytics License Management

PathWave Manufacturing Analytics License Management

PathWave Manufacturing Analytics uses licensing to control various aspects of the software. Learn how to use the built-in license manager that uses license files to enable certain features.

2020.04.21

Application Notes 2020.04.17

Validate and Monitor VPN Access Performance with Hawkeye

Validate and Monitor VPN Access Performance with Hawkeye

With Keysight Hawkeye, you can prevent VPN or internet traffic bursts from causing major service outages or jeopardizing user experiences. In this application note, you will discover a step-by-step methodology for deploying Keysight Hawkeye and monitoring remote users’ quality of experience.

2020.04.17

Application Notes 2020.04.07

Keysight Solution for Power Storage and Conversion Testing

Keysight Solution for Power Storage and Conversion Testing

There is a growing need to test power across all industries such as IoT, medical, automotive, and industrial. Properly powering up a test device is critical to evaluating a design. At the same time, properly loading down a test device is just as important. Things like DC-DC converters and batteries require both a power source and a loading mechanism to perform various tests. While both common solutions involve the power source and the load as separate instruments, Keysight has you covered with a fully integrated source and load solution. The N6700 power platform allows the test engineer to power up and load down a device properly in a single sweep with seamless interaction between the two operations.

2020.04.07

Application Notes 2020.04.02

Control Tower Stack Light

Control Tower Stack Light

Users can control the tower light indicator and buzzer using the testplan based on their preferences during production.

2020.04.02

Application Notes 2020.04.02

Enhancing Efficiency of EMI Pre-Compliance Testing

Enhancing Efficiency of EMI Pre-Compliance Testing

Uncovering EMI issues early is important! See how Keysight’s N6141 EMI Measurement Application helps make fast and easy EMI pre-compliance tests.

2020.04.02

Application Notes 2020.04.01

Transmission Lines and Reflected Signals

Transmission Lines and Reflected Signals

FieldFox Fundamentals — Lesson 3. Learn the basics of transmission lines and reflected signals with some practice measurements of the reflection coefficient using a FieldFox handheld analyzer.

2020.04.01

Application Notes 2020.03.31

Spurious Emission Measurements Using Fast-Sweep Techniques

Spurious Emission Measurements Using Fast-Sweep Techniques

Searching for spurious emissions can be especially difficult and time-consuming. Learn techniques you can use to accelerate and optimize your measurements.

2020.03.31

Application Notes 2020.03.23

Multiport and Multi-site Test Optimization Techniques

Multiport and Multi-site Test Optimization Techniques

Nancy Sumida

This app note gives an overview of multiport and multi-site test capabilities, how different multiport test solutions compare, and what should be considered when configuring a multi-site test station.

Nancy Sumida 2020.03.23

Application Notes 2020.03.23

Tune and Verify Complex Model Library Using PathWave Model Builder and Model QA

Tune and Verify Complex Model Library Using PathWave Model Builder and Model QA

This application note provides information to tune complex model library using the latest PathWave Model Builder (MBP) 2020, and then verify it using PathWave Model QA (MQA).

2020.03.23

Application Notes 2020.03.18

Network Analyzer Measurements: Filter and Amplifier Examples

Network Analyzer Measurements: Filter and Amplifier Examples

See how to use vector network analyzer measurements to evaluate the performance of active and passive components such as amplifiers and filters.

2020.03.18

Application Notes 2020.03.17

Power Consumption Solutions for Battery Operated Medical Devices

Power Consumption Solutions for Battery Operated Medical Devices

Battery life is important for any IoT device manufacturer, but it is especially critical in the Healthcare IoT, where premature product failure can have serious negative consequences for both the patient and the device manufacturer. Check out this application note that highlights power measurement solutions for wireless, battery-operated medical devices.

2020.03.17

Application Notes 2020.03.15

N1225A 4-Channel High-Resolution Laser Axis Board for VME

N1225A 4-Channel High-Resolution Laser Axis Board for VME

With the release of the Keysight N1225A firmware revision B.40, the N1225A 4-channel high-resolution laser axis board for VME introduces additional functions. This application note provides general information and updated register maps for new functionality added by firmware revision B.40.

2020.03.15

Application Notes 2020.03.12

Advanced Materials Terms and Acronyms

Advanced Materials Terms and Acronyms

Discover some terms and definitions that can help you navigate the continually advancing and ever-so-promising field of materials science in this handbook

2020.03.12

Application Notes 2020.03.01

Radar Measurements

Radar Measurements

Learn radar basics, the fundamentals of measuring basic pulsed radar in radar systems and available radar measurement solutions today.

2020.03.01

Application Notes 2020.02.27

MIMO and Wideband Millimeter-Wave Testing with the UXR

MIMO and Wideband Millimeter-Wave Testing with the UXR

Learn to make quick and accurate phase-coherent MIMO measurements with the UXR.

2020.02.27

Application Notes 2020.02.18

N1225A and the Keysight IO Libraries

N1225A and the Keysight IO Libraries

How to use the Keysight IO Libraries to access the N1225A VME Axis Board

2020.02.18

Application Notes 2020.02.01

Evaluating Battery Run-Down with the N6781A or N6785A and the BV9200B

Evaluating Battery Run-Down with the N6781A or N6785A and the BV9200B

This application note will describe in detail the procedure on evaluating battery run down on a mobile device directly powered by its battery.

2020.02.01

Application Notes 2020.01.28

Error Analysis of PAM4 Signals

Error Analysis of PAM4 Signals

Increasing demands for a connected world continue to drive next generation solutions. Multilevel signaling formats, such as PAM4 are enabling technology to implement 400G. The switch from NRZ to PAM4 is revolutionary.

2020.01.28

Application Notes 2020.01.22

Software Verifier for nanoVTEP i3070 In-Circuit Tester

Software Verifier for nanoVTEP i3070 In-Circuit Tester

The software verifier revision 6.0 is a utility tool for verification of the nanoVTEP signal conditioner board (mux card) and its probe. This application note describes the steps to download, execute, and interpret its test results.

2020.01.22

Application Notes 2020.01.19

Create Accurate EVM Measurements with the PNA-X Series Network Analyzer

Create Accurate EVM Measurements with the PNA-X Series Network Analyzer

In this application note, you will learn an innovative method for characterizing nonlinearity of the power amplifier under modulated stimulus condition.

2020.01.19

Application Notes 2020.01.17

RF GaN Model Extraction Solution in PathWave Device Modeling (IC-CAP)

RF GaN Model Extraction Solution in PathWave Device Modeling (IC-CAP)

GaN (Gallium-Nitride) technology is one of the fastest growing subsegments in the RF industry. Especially with the development of 5G communications, GaN technology is broadly accepted and continues to advance due to its high-frequency and high-power handling capability. We will survey the current RF GaN models and discuss parameter extraction solutions using Keysight IC-CAP.

2020.01.17

Application Notes 2020.01.15

How to Perform Low Current and Narrow Pulse Measurements Using the M9601A PXIe SMU

How to Perform Low Current and Narrow Pulse Measurements Using the M9601A PXIe SMU

You will learn how to perform low current and narrow pulse measurement through lab exercises using the M9601A PXIe SMU.

2020.01.15

Application Notes 2020.01.06

A400GE-QDD Recommended Tap Settings for Link Operation

A400GE-QDD Recommended Tap Settings for Link Operation

This application note provides recommended transmit pre-emphasis tap settings for quad small form factor pluggable double density (QSFP-DD) multi-source agreement (MSA) compliant optical transceivers and passive copper direct attached cables (DAC) for the A400 test system. Specific examples are provided for the device under test (DUT) transmitter as well.

2020.01.06

Application Notes 2019.12.25

Measuring High Impedance Sources Using Audio Analyzers

Measuring High Impedance Sources Using Audio Analyzers

Presents a method of increasing the input impedance of the U8903B audio analyzer when measuring high impedance sources.

2019.12.25

Application Notes 2019.12.23

How to Create Baseband Waveforms and Download Them to RF Vector Signal Generators

How to Create Baseband Waveforms and Download Them to RF Vector Signal Generators

Understand the hardware structure and requirements for waveform data so that you can generate correct waveforms and download the waveforms into vector signal generators.

2019.12.23

Application Notes 2019.12.19

RF and Microwave Power Measurement Accuracy – TVAC Testing

RF and Microwave Power Measurement Accuracy – TVAC Testing

Lee Chin Aik

Keysight’s new TVAC power sensor offers a simplified test setup with more accurate and reliable microwave power measurements for testing satellite equipment.

Lee Chin Aik 2019.12.19

Application Notes 2019.12.17

Characterizing Nonlinear Behavior in Active Devices –  An Evaluation of X-parameter

Characterizing Nonlinear Behavior in Active Devices – An Evaluation of X-parameter

Three different modeling techniques can be used to capture nonlinear behavior in a PA: S2D, P2D, and the more recently commercialize X-parameter model. Learn more!

2019.12.17

Application Notes 2019.12.09

Best Practices for Using the CX3300A’s Data Logger Mode

Best Practices for Using the CX3300A’s Data Logger Mode

Read some best practices for Long Duration Measurements, using the CX3300A’s data logger mode to record precise current and voltage waveform at high sampling rates.

2019.12.09

Application Notes 2019.12.04

Choosing the Best Frequency Counter: 10 Hints

Choosing the Best Frequency Counter: 10 Hints

Choose the best frequency counter and get the most from it. This appnote from Keysight will help walk you through frequency counter measurement techniques.

2019.12.04

Application Notes 2019.12.02

When Testing a Device at Multiple  Voltages - Use an Output LIST

When Testing a Device at Multiple Voltages - Use an Output LIST

When you need to test a device over a range of power levels, consider using an output LIST. An output LIST allows you to specify a series of steps that change the power supply’s output. Each step controls the output for a set length of time before moving on to the next step.

2019.12.02

Application Notes 2019.12.02

Logging Measurements over Time with a Bench Power Supply

Logging Measurements over Time with a Bench Power Supply

Traditionally, power supplies would only tell you the instantaneous output power. If you wanted to record data over time it required extra equipment and extra setup. Today, though, some modern bench power supplies include a built-in data logger feature. While the data logger is simple to use – reading this application note provides examples and advance capabilities.

2019.12.02

Application Notes 2019.12.01

U2040/50/60 and L2050/60 X-Series

U2040/50/60 and L2050/60 X-Series

Lee, Chin Aik

This demonstration guide explains how some of the most frequently-made measurements obtained using the Keysight Technologies, Inc. U2040XA Series power sensors can be analyzed using the Keysight BenchVuesoftware Power Meter App.

Lee, Chin Aik 2019.12.01

Application Notes 2019.11.30

Overcoming LoRa Device RF Measurement Challenges

Overcoming LoRa Device RF Measurement Challenges

An introduction to some key LoRa device RF measurement challenges and guidance on how users can overcome these challenges using Keysight test solutions.

2019.11.30

Application Notes 2019.11.25

Hi-Speed USB 2.0 Characterization of Serial Buses

Hi-Speed USB 2.0 Characterization of Serial Buses

Characterizing high speed USB 2.0 signals in embedded designs is challenging. Learn how to use oscilloscopes to easily test and characterize USB 2.0 signals.

2019.11.25

Application Notes 2019.11.24

Introduction to the FieldFox RF & Microwave Analyzer

Introduction to the FieldFox RF & Microwave Analyzer

FieldFox handheld RF and microwave analyzers are portable, rugged, flexible and lightweight. Learn the key features and fundamentals of Keysight's FieldFox.

2019.11.24

Application Notes 2019.11.24

Techniques for Time Domain Measurements Using FieldFox Handheld Analyzers

Techniques for Time Domain Measurements Using FieldFox Handheld Analyzers

Learn about time domain and distance-to-fault measurement techniques used to identify the locations and relative amplitudes of discontinuities while operating in the field.

2019.11.24

Application Notes 2019.11.21

Top Five Reasons Why U2040/50/60 and L2050/60 X-Series Power Sensors are Ideal

Top Five Reasons Why U2040/50/60 and L2050/60 X-Series Power Sensors are Ideal

This application note details the top five reasons why the U2040 X-Series wide dynamic range power sensors are the ideal solution for wireless chipset manufacturing tests.

2019.11.21

Application Notes 2019.11.19

Using Command Expert with Microsoft Excel

Using Command Expert with Microsoft Excel

Keysight Command Expert is a FREE tool that provides fast and easy instrument control in many PC environments. Learn how to integrate with Microsoft Excel.

2019.11.19

Application Notes 2019.11.13

Simultaneous Measurements with a Digital Multimeter (DMM)

Simultaneous Measurements with a Digital Multimeter (DMM)

The ability to make simultaneous measurements on the Keysight 34460A/70A series DMMs allows designers to analyze their data faster. Learn more!

2019.11.13

Application Notes 2019.11.10

TDK Corp. Power Circuit Simulation Leads to Improvement

TDK Corp. Power Circuit Simulation Leads to Improvement

See how TDK Corporation realized significant improvement in analysis accuracy in power circuit simulation using circuit simulators from Keysight.

2019.11.10

Application Notes 2019.11.10

Optimize Power Distribution Networks for Flat Impedance

Optimize Power Distribution Networks for Flat Impedance

This application note shows how power integrity (PI) engineers can select decoupling capacitor values to avoid resonant impedance peaks in the power delivery. Simply leveraging capacitor values from past designs or data sheet examples is risky when design margins keep diminishing with lower power rail voltages, higher currents, and faster data rates. Modern simulation tools can provide a complete Power Integrity workflow to optimize the PI ecosystem and avoid failures like EMI/EMC late in the design cycle.

2019.11.10

Application Notes 2019.11.05

Multi-tap Transformer Measurement Using a Scanner and a LCR Meter

Multi-tap Transformer Measurement Using a Scanner and a LCR Meter

This application note shows an effective multi-tap transformer measurement with a combination of a scanner and the 4263B LCR meter. Learn more!

2019.11.05

Application Notes 2019.11.04

Measuring Passive Components with Precision LCR Meters

Measuring Passive Components with Precision LCR Meters

Improve passive component performance with Keysight’s precision LCR meters in incoming inspection and R&D. Today’s intense competition demands it.

2019.11.04

Application Notes 2019.10.31

Measuring a Balanced Circuit with an Unbalanced Measurement Instrument

Measuring a Balanced Circuit with an Unbalanced Measurement Instrument

Learn how to make a balanced circuit measurement by the unbalanced instrument (Impedance Analyzer, LCR meter or Network Analyzer). Step by step instructions.

2019.10.31

Application Notes 2019.10.21

Numerical Simulation of a Bipolar-Sequence TMA System

Numerical Simulation of a Bipolar-Sequence TMA System

Numerical modeling of an 8-element bipolar time-modulated array (BTMA) system composed of microstrip patches and designed for operating at 5-GHz.

2019.10.21

Application Notes 2019.10.20

i3070 In-Circuit Tester (ICT) – Industry 4.0 Ready

i3070 In-Circuit Tester (ICT) – Industry 4.0 Ready

Keysight’s plug and play i3070 In-Circuit test system supports Industry 4.0 machine to machine communication protocol of IPC-CFX standards and more.

2019.10.20

Application Notes 2019.10.20

5GNR Signal Generation – Phase Compensation Challenges

5GNR Signal Generation – Phase Compensation Challenges

Addressing phase compensation challenge in 5G NR is a big challenge for test engineers. This application note explains how to succeed. Learn More!

2019.10.20

Application Notes 2019.10.16

Network Analyzer Architectures

Network Analyzer Architectures

Having a basic understanding of a network analyzer’s capabilities and operation enables an operator to derive optimum performance. Learn more!

2019.10.16

Application Notes 2019.10.14

Demonstrate DC Electronic Load Fundamentals

Demonstrate DC Electronic Load Fundamentals

DC electronic loads characterize a power supply’s responses to various load conditions. The N6790 series load provides modes for current, voltage, resistant and power.

2019.10.14

Application Notes 2019.10.13

IGBT Measurements and Characterization using the B1505A

IGBT Measurements and Characterization using the B1505A

We explain 1500 A and 10 kV IGBT Characterization using the B1505A Power Device Analyzer / Curve Tracer and other typical DC parameters found in IGBT specifications.

2019.10.13

Application Notes 2019.10.13

B1500A: A Complete CMOS Reliability Test Solution

B1500A: A Complete CMOS Reliability Test Solution

This application note gives an overview of the B1500A’s key measurement features and shows how the B1500A is a complete solution for verifying CMOS process reliability.

2019.10.13

Application Notes 2019.10.11

Military Communication Systems Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Military Communication Systems Maintenance and Troubleshooting

Learn what is possible for field test and verification of radar systems. We cover the “what” and “how” of effective testing for military communication systems.

2019.10.11

Application Notes 2019.10.09

Quasi-Static Capacitance Voltage Measurement Techniques

Quasi-Static Capacitance Voltage Measurement Techniques

How to perform quasi-static capacitance voltage measurements using the B1500A semiconductor device analyzer using capacitance voltage measurement techniques!

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.09

Thyristor Characterization Using B1505A Power Device Analyzer

Thyristor Characterization Using B1505A Power Device Analyzer

Read this overview of thyristor characterization using the B1505A. Discontinuous behavior requires different methodologies for testing thyristor’s DC parameters.

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.09

IGBT Sense Emitter Current Testing Using the B1505A

IGBT Sense Emitter Current Testing Using the B1505A

Learn how to simultaneously measure the sense emitter current, emitter current and built-in temperature sensor current / voltage of IGBT using the B1505A.

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.09

Power MOSFET / IGBT Internal Gate Resistance Measurement

Power MOSFET / IGBT Internal Gate Resistance Measurement

Keysight’s B1505A Power Device Analyzer makes power MOSFET and IGBT internal gate resistance measurements. Learn how with this real-time measurement example.

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.09

High-Power MOSFET Characterization using the Keysight B1505

High-Power MOSFET Characterization using the Keysight B1505

This application note explains how to use the B1505A to measure typical DC parameters of high-power MOSFETs. Learn more!

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.09

Capacitance Measurement Basics

Capacitance Measurement Basics

This application note explains capacitance measurement basics for device/material characterization using Keysight B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer.

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.09

Ixia Hawkeye on the Cisco Catalyst 9300: CLI Instructions for Running a Docker Instance

Ixia Hawkeye on the Cisco Catalyst 9300: CLI Instructions for Running a Docker Instance

In this application note, we will show you how to enable active monitoring on your Cisco Catalyst 9300 switches by downloading, installing, and deploying the Hawkeye endpoint on them.

2019.10.09

Application Notes 2019.10.08

DC MOSFET Characterization at the Wafer Level

DC MOSFET Characterization at the Wafer Level

This application note discusses the use of the B1500A semiconductor device analyzer for ultra low current DC MOSFET characterization at the wafer level.

2019.10.08

Application Notes 2019.10.08

GNSS Technologies and GNSS Receiver Testing

GNSS Technologies and GNSS Receiver Testing

New information on GNSS technologies including GPS, Compass, Beidou, Galileo, and Glonass, along with the related receiver test challenges and solutions.

2019.10.08

Application Notes 2019.10.07

SiC Power Devices Analytical Model

SiC Power Devices Analytical Model

See how ROHM Co., dramatically improved simulation accuracy for devices using these creative ideas for extracting parameters to accurately model SiC MOSFETs.

2019.10.07

Application Notes 2019.10.06

Using Noise Floor Extension in an X-Series Signal Analyzer

Using Noise Floor Extension in an X-Series Signal Analyzer

Learn how noise floor extension (NFE) techniques, benefits and practical considerations can be accomplished with Keysight’s PXA signal analyzer.

2019.10.06

Application Notes 2019.10.04

Tips and Techniques for Accurate Characterization of 28 Gb/s Designs

Tips and Techniques for Accurate Characterization of 28 Gb/s Designs

The worldwide demand for data capacity in networks greatly increases every year, driven by services like cloud computing and Video on Demand.

2019.10.04

Application Notes 2019.10.03

Modular Products 34980A Measurements Made Easy

Modular Products 34980A Measurements Made Easy

This document includes examples with detailed steps needed to make measurements using the modular product 34980A multifunction switch / measure unit.

2019.10.03

Application Notes 2019.09.30

Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements

Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements

Explore information on RF and Microwave noise figure measurements, starting from the concept of noise figure and noise temperature, describing the noise characteristics of two-ports networks, and highlighting the different methods used to measure noise figure, such as Y-Factor and the Direct Noise measurement method.

2019.09.30

Application Notes 2019.09.29

Overcome RF and Microwave Interference Challenges

Overcome RF and Microwave Interference Challenges

Learn tips to overcome RF and microwave interference challenges and troubleshooting interference in the field with Real-Time Spectrum Analysis (RTSA).

2019.09.29

Application Notes 2019.09.26

InfiniiVision Series Oscilloscopes with 89600 VSA Software

InfiniiVision Series Oscilloscopes with 89600 VSA Software

Characteristics, setup, & operation of InfiniiVision oscilloscopes when combined with the 89600 VSA software to provide broadband vector signal analysis.

2019.09.26

Application Notes 2019.09.24

Noise Figure Measurements: 10 Hints

Noise Figure Measurements: 10 Hints

Noise figure is often the key to characterizing a receiver and to detect weak incoming signals. Learn to minimize uncertainties in your noise figure measurements.

2019.09.24

Application Notes 2019.09.22

Test Automation Software (PathWave)

Test Automation Software (PathWave)

Keysight Test Automation Software Platform (PathWave) & PXI radio test set helps test engineers quickly create and deploy radio-test solutions. Learn more.

2019.09.22

Application Notes 2019.09.21

Complex Modulation Benefits

Complex Modulation Benefits

In part one of an eight-part series, learn the benefits of complex modulation schemes to provide a faster and more efficient way for high-speed transmission.

2019.09.21

Application Notes 2019.09.19

S-Parameter Requirements for Oscilloscope De-Embedding

S-Parameter Requirements for Oscilloscope De-Embedding

A tutorial in helping the reader achieve the big picture of interoperating oscilloscope data and how to understand its relationship to S-parameters.

2019.09.19

Application Notes 2019.09.19

Multichannel Measurements in MIMO 802.11ac Baseband IQ Simulation, Design and Test

Multichannel Measurements in MIMO 802.11ac Baseband IQ Simulation, Design and Test

This solution brief will show Keysight Technologies' complete, end-to-end solution for multichannel measurements of 802.11ac BBIQ simulation, design and test.

2019.09.19

Application Notes 2019.09.18

E4982A LCR Meter 1 MHz to 3 GHz Migration Guide from 4287A

E4982A LCR Meter 1 MHz to 3 GHz Migration Guide from 4287A

This migration guide describes the differences between the E4982A LCR meter and 4287A RF LCR meter to help users easily migrate from their 4287A to the E4982A.

2019.09.18

Application Notes 2019.09.18

Design Tutorial E5061B ENA

Design Tutorial E5061B ENA

This application note describes how to configure a 12-port custom switch box with the L4491A switch platform and operation basics using the E5061B network analyzer.

2019.09.18

Application Notes 2019.09.10

Quantum Instrument Port Configuration

Quantum Instrument Port Configuration

Keysight is enabling a new generation of Quantum Computer research by making FPGA hardware-in-the-loop accessible to a broad range of engineers. Learn more.

2019.09.10

Application Notes 2019.09.10

Flexible Digital Modulation Solution

Flexible Digital Modulation Solution

Generate a GFSK signal with Keysight’s 33522B dual-channel waveform generator and N9310A RF signal generator. Flexible modulation at your fingertips.

2019.09.10

Application Notes 2019.09.06

Phase Noise Measurement Methods and Techniques

Phase Noise Measurement Methods and Techniques

This note gives an overview of phase noise fundamentals before describing the 3 most common phase noise measurement techniques and where they apply.

2019.09.06

Application Notes 2019.09.04

Measuring Burst Time-Gated Power Signals Using Power Sensors

Measuring Burst Time-Gated Power Signals Using Power Sensors

Measuring pulse, burst, or modulated signals for wireless technologies is critical. Keysight’s U2000A power sensor is a low-cost solution that works. Learn more!

2019.09.04

Application Notes 2019.09.04

LTE-Advanced Manufacturing Test

LTE-Advanced Manufacturing Test

This application note gives insight into how to better understand the requirements for LTE-Advanced Carrier Aggregation manufacturing test.

2019.09.04

Application Notes 2019.08.29

High-Speed Coherent Optical Transmission Characterization

High-Speed Coherent Optical Transmission Characterization

Generate clean signals for high speed coherent optical transmission, at the input of your Device Under Test with Keysight’s M8195A using in-situ calibration.

2019.08.29

Application Notes 2019.08.28

Improving EMC Compliance Testing

Improving EMC Compliance Testing

Improve throughput with Time Domain Scanning. Get an overview of time domain scan for EMC compliance test scenarios in which it provides the greatest time savings.

2019.08.28

Application Notes 2019.08.27

Overcoming Test Challenges of USB Type-C

Overcoming Test Challenges of USB Type-C

An intro to the USB Type-C connector, the interface functions it provides, and test implications engineers face when integrating the connector into designs.

2019.08.27

Application Notes 2019.08.26

Measurement System Analysis (MSA) for Manufacturing

Measurement System Analysis (MSA) for Manufacturing

Measurement System Analysis (MSA) ensures consistent quality of the manufacturing process. See how Keysight's PathWave Manufacturing Analytics can help.

2019.08.26

Application Notes 2019.08.19

Understanding PCI Express® 3.0 Physical Layer Transmitter Testing

Understanding PCI Express® 3.0 Physical Layer Transmitter Testing

Learn more about PCI Express® 3.0 Physical Layer Transmitter Testing from Keysight for high-performance applications – Part 1 of 3.

2019.08.19

Application Notes 2019.08.18

NFC Device Testing Solutions

NFC Device Testing Solutions

Learn how Keysight provides accurate, configurable and versatile test bench solutions with qualified test tools to address NFC device test challenges.

2019.08.18

Application Notes 2019.08.14

Achieving Accurate E-band Power Measurements with E8486A Waveguide Power Sensors

Achieving Accurate E-band Power Measurements with E8486A Waveguide Power Sensors

E-band spectrum application has been gaining more application interests in the recent years. E8486A addresses the requirement for accurate RF power measurement in the mm-wave applications.

2019.08.14

Application Notes 2019.08.13

Automotive FMCW Radar Analysis with U3851A RFMW Courseware

Automotive FMCW Radar Analysis with U3851A RFMW Courseware

Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar is widely used in the automotive industry. We discuss FMCW simulation with SystemVue. Learn More!

2019.08.13

Application Notes 2019.08.12

Bluetooth® 5 Test and Technology Fundamentals

Bluetooth® 5 Test and Technology Fundamentals

Read this overview of Bluetooth 5 test and the technology evolution. What is new in Bluetooth 5 and what are the critical test requirements for Bluetooth 5.

2019.08.12

Application Notes 2019.08.11

Using PathWave Manufacturing Analytics to Achieve Greater Production First Pass Yield

Using PathWave Manufacturing Analytics to Achieve Greater Production First Pass Yield

Application note paper to promote PathWave Manufacturing Analytics (PMA) by describing how to make use of 2 features (Cpk table and False Failure analysis) within PMA to achieve greater production FPY.

2019.08.11

Application Notes 2019.08.04

Battery Temperature Rise – How to Trend and Analyze

Battery Temperature Rise – How to Trend and Analyze

Learn how the TrueIR thermal imagers and contact–type temperature measurement solutions can work to effectively analyze battery charging temperature rise.

2019.08.04

Application Notes 2019.07.30

FieldFox Remote Viewer

FieldFox Remote Viewer

FieldFox remote viewer is a FREE iOS app, that allows you to view and control FieldFox from your iOS device. Find how to setup your FieldFox Analyzer on your iOS device.

2019.07.30

Application Notes 2019.07.10

HP8920 Mode on the M8920A Radio Test Set

HP8920 Mode on the M8920A Radio Test Set

The M8920A radio test set can be used to replace legacy HP8920 test set in an automated test environment with minimal or no modification to the currently used measurement software.

2019.07.10

Application Notes 2019.07.09

Evaluating Oscilloscope Signal Integrity

Evaluating Oscilloscope Signal Integrity

Signal Integrity impacts all oscilloscope measurements. It is the primary measure of signal quality. Does your oscilloscope provide the signal quality you need to measure with confidence? Learn about the various important considerations that determine an oscilloscopes overall measurement quality.

2019.07.09

Application Notes 2019.07.08

Power Meters and Power Sensors Software Migration

Power Meters and Power Sensors Software Migration

Compare the new software features and enhancements available for Keysight power meters and power sensors.

2019.07.08

Application Notes 2019.07.07

Minimizing Measurement Uncertainty

Minimizing Measurement Uncertainty

Measurement uncertainty impacts measurement accuracy and certainty. Learn how to minimize mismatch uncertainty quickly and minimize it where ever possible.

2019.07.07

Application Notes 2019.07.02

TestJet and VTEP Hardware Description and Verification

TestJet and VTEP Hardware Description and Verification

This paper describes the TestJet and VTEP hardware components, the required connections for assembly, instructions for the setup and use of the Fixture Verifier.

2019.07.02

Application Notes 2019.07.02

Using a Frequency Counter to Measure Phase Noise

Using a Frequency Counter to Measure Phase Noise

The combination of frequency counter and signal analyzer capabilities makes it possible to capture close-in phase noise. Learn more.

2019.07.02

Application Notes 2019.06.30

Wireless Data Acquisition System

Wireless Data Acquisition System

Learn how you can configure and take advantage of the latest wireless router technology with either the 34972A DAQ system or any LXI instrument.

2019.06.30

Application Notes 2019.06.26

Measuring Power MOSFET Characteristics Using the B1505A

Measuring Power MOSFET Characteristics Using the B1505A

This application note explains how to use the Keysight B1505A to measure the typical DC and capacitance parameters of power MOSFET devices.

2019.06.26

Application Notes 2019.06.26

RF Interference Signals in Aerospace and Defense

RF Interference Signals in Aerospace and Defense

This application focuses on intentional RF interference and the ultimate goal of countering undesired signals in streaming and playback using 4 practical steps.

2019.06.26

Application Notes 2019.06.26

Measuring Resistivity of Insulating Material Using the B2985A/87A

Measuring Resistivity of Insulating Material Using the B2985A/87A

This application note explains how easy it is to make an resistivity measurement of insulating materials using the B2980A Electrometer / High Resistance Meter Series.

2019.06.26

Application Notes 2019.06.25

Calculating Real Time S-Parameter and Power Uncertainty

Calculating Real Time S-Parameter and Power Uncertainty

This application note shows how to use Keysight’s innovative real time uncertainty VNA software option (S93015B) to determine the uncertainty of your S-parameter and power measurements.

2019.06.25

Application Notes 2019.06.25

Digital Multimeter 34461A vs 34401A

Digital Multimeter 34461A vs 34401A

Migration from the 33401A to the 33461A DMM does not require rewrite programs or spend hours learning a brand-new, complicated interface. Learn more.

2019.06.25

Application Notes 2019.06.19

Faster Data Analysis with Digital Multimeter Measurements

Faster Data Analysis with Digital Multimeter Measurements

Turn lots of data into results quickly with Truevolt Series DMMs’ new graphical display, advanced analysis modes, and built-in math functions.

2019.06.19

Application Notes 2019.06.17

Reducing Downtime Remotely with Keysight On-Site Now!

Reducing Downtime Remotely with Keysight On-Site Now!

With Keysight’s On-Site Now service, quicker expert consultants can respond and resolve your production issues faster and reduce downtime. Learn more.

2019.06.17

Application Notes 2019.06.03

Reduce Cost of Test

Reduce Cost of Test

See how the Keysight ENA series network analyzer, a mid-performance VNA, provides superior cost performance and can help drive down the cost of test.

2019.06.03

Application Notes 2019.05.30

Portable Multichannel/Multi-Module Streaming/Recording Solutions Using M9203A and PXIe RAID Storage

Portable Multichannel/Multi-Module Streaming/Recording Solutions Using M9203A and PXIe RAID Storage

This application note explains how to construct a portable M9203A streaming solution, and suggests configurations that maximize streaming/recording performance for up to 8 channels.

2019.05.30

Application Notes 2019.05.20

Removing Noise in Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Self-Discharge

Removing Noise in Lithium-Ion Battery Cell Self-Discharge

Learn about a series of algorithms that effectively remove noise in Li-Ion self discharge data sets to improve the reliability of cell classification.

2019.05.20

Application Notes 2019.05.20

How to Minimize Measurement Uncertainty Using RF Signal Generators

How to Minimize Measurement Uncertainty Using RF Signal Generators

Learn how to minimize measurement uncertainty with the right RF signal generator and measurement software to test your DUT effectively.

2019.05.20

Application Notes 2019.05.15

NB-IoT & LTE Cat-M1 Field Measurements and SLA Verification

NB-IoT & LTE Cat-M1 Field Measurements and SLA Verification

This document introduces new CIoT technologies and explains the importance of NB-IoT and LTE Cat-M1 field testing and SLA verification.

2019.05.15

Application Notes 2019.05.09

Boundary Scan Test Development on i1000D In-Circuit Test System

Boundary Scan Test Development on i1000D In-Circuit Test System

Reduce your boundary scan engineering efforts by using Keysight’s i1000D In-Circuit Test System. Follow this implementation guide to meet the requirements.

2019.05.09

Application Notes 2019.05.08

What is MGND

What is MGND

The i1000 misreporting of failed card. Digital card is damaged but Analog card is reported as damaged instead.

2019.05.08

Application Notes 2019.05.08

Boundary Scan Test – How to Successfully Debug

Boundary Scan Test – How to Successfully Debug

Take 3 steps to reduce engineering effort in boundary scan implementation on the i1000 In-Circuit Test System from requirements and debugging tips to the set up.

2019.05.08

Application Notes 2019.05.07

Simplify Boundary Scan Test Development and Debug

Simplify Boundary Scan Test Development and Debug

Keysight’s i1000D In-Circuit Test System provides 4 tools to simplify boundary scan test development and debug. Learn more!

2019.05.07

Application Notes 2019.04.29

Conquering the Multi Kilowatt Source/Sink Test Challenge

Conquering the Multi Kilowatt Source/Sink Test Challenge

Satellites, hybrid electric vehicles, uninterruptible power supplies, alternate energy power sources and other modern power systems rely on bidirectional and regenerative energy systems and devices.

2019.04.29

Application Notes 2019.04.24

IoT Testing Challenges for ZigBee IoT Products

IoT Testing Challenges for ZigBee IoT Products

This paper discusses common difficulties in manufacturing test of Wireless ZigBee IoT devices and how the Keysight ZA0060A solves them inexpensively.

2019.04.24

Application Notes 2019.04.21

PCIe Connectivity with your Keysight AXIe or PXIe Chassis

PCIe Connectivity with your Keysight AXIe or PXIe Chassis

Keysight's AXIe and PXIe chassis use PCIe® as their primary communications link. This note provides a guide to address PCI/PCIe communications issues.

2019.04.21

Application Notes 2019.04.18

Enabling Technologies for IoT Design and Test

Enabling Technologies for IoT Design and Test

This application note provides insight into enabling technologies for IoT and covers solutions for IoT Design and Test. Learn more!

2019.04.18

Application Notes 2019.04.18

Digital Multimeter Ratio Measurement Techniques

Digital Multimeter Ratio Measurement Techniques

This paper compares three ratio measurement techniques by using DMM for determining the traceable value and measurement uncertainty of unknown input.

2019.04.18

Application Notes 2019.04.14

How to Create Arbitrary Power Waveforms

How to Create Arbitrary Power Waveforms

Learn how to create arbitrary power waveforms. See it demonstrated with Python and sockets in this application note.

2019.04.14

Application Notes 2019.04.02

Using Microwave Switches When Testing High Speed Serial Digital Interfaces

Using Microwave Switches When Testing High Speed Serial Digital Interfaces

Many high speed digital interfaces use multiple lanes to achieve their system's throughput requirements. Most issues associated with this can be resolved with a switching network.

2019.04.02

Application Notes 2019.03.25

Bipolar Transistor Characterization Using the B2900A SMU

Bipolar Transistor Characterization Using the B2900A SMU

This application note describes the characterization of Bipolar transistors using the B2900a precision source/measure units.

2019.03.25

Application Notes 2019.03.25

Everything You Need to Know About Coherent Optical Modulation

Everything You Need to Know About Coherent Optical Modulation

This is an introduction to the fundamentals of coherent optical modulation techniques.

2019.03.25

Application Notes 2019.03.24

Getting Better Measurements on the Go with a FieldFox Handheld Analyzer

Getting Better Measurements on the Go with a FieldFox Handheld Analyzer

This application note provides tips to help you make more accurate measurements in the field for cable, antenna, network analysis and spectrum analysis applications.

2019.03.24

Application Notes 2019.03.19

LoRaWAN Test Challenges and Solutions

LoRaWAN Test Challenges and Solutions

Learn how to overcome the challenges in LoRaWAN testing. Keysight LoRaWAN solutions ensure all LoRaWAN devices deliver on the technology’s promise.

2019.03.19

Application Notes 2019.03.13

5G Waveform Evaluations – mmWave Communication with SystemVue

5G Waveform Evaluations – mmWave Communication with SystemVue

This application note evaluates and compares the performance of various state-of-the art waveforms including CP-OFDM in the presence of hardware impairments.

2019.03.13

Application Notes 2019.03.10

Importing a MATLAB Waveform into Genesys

Importing a MATLAB Waveform into Genesys

This application note shows you the quick and easy process of importing a MATLAB waveform into Genesys for data processing, simulation and analysis.

2019.03.10

Application Notes 2019.03.06

Simulating FPGA Power Integrity Using S-Parameter Models

Simulating FPGA Power Integrity Using S-Parameter Models

This paper discusses the simulation of frequency domain self-impedance profiles of a PDN using different methods of the S-Parameter Model. Learn more.

2019.03.06

Application Notes 2019.03.06

Overcoming Crosstalk Issues in Digital and Wireless Designs

Overcoming Crosstalk Issues in Digital and Wireless Designs

Design engineers need better tools and methods to analyze crosstalk. This paper provides insights into the design challenges faced and crosstalk effects.

2019.03.06

Application Notes 2019.03.06

Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) EMPro

Scanning Microwave Microscopy (SMM) EMPro

This paper describes electromagnetic (EM) simulations using Keysight EMPro software to support the interpretation of scanning microwave microscope (SMM) experiments.

2019.03.06

Application Notes 2019.03.04

Improving the Accuracy of Matlab Simulation

Improving the Accuracy of Matlab Simulation

This paper details the process of combining MATLAB and the RF System analysis to improve the accuracy of MATLAB simulations via personalized models.

2019.03.04

Application Notes 2019.03.03

Increasing Reliability and Efficiency in Power Converter Designs (Part 2)

Increasing Reliability and Efficiency in Power Converter Designs (Part 2)

Next-generation power converter designs for vehicle electrification and other renewable energy systems calls for better power device and component evaluation. This is part two in a four part series.

2019.03.03

Application Notes 2019.02.14

Innovative Passive Intermodulation (PIM) and S–parameter Measurement Solution

Innovative Passive Intermodulation (PIM) and S–parameter Measurement Solution

Learn about Keysight’s innovative ENA solution that combines passive intermodulation (PIM) and S-parameter measurement capabilities.

2019.02.14

Application Notes 2019.02.12

The CX3300 Unveils Current Waveform Never Seen by Conventional Current Probes

The CX3300 Unveils Current Waveform Never Seen by Conventional Current Probes

The CX3300A enables a wide range of precision current waveform measurements that have been difficult to obtain using a conventional current probe.

2019.02.12

Application Notes 2019.02.12

7 Practices to Prevent Damaging Power Meters & Sensors

7 Practices to Prevent Damaging Power Meters & Sensors

Learn how to protect the power meter / sensors from damage to ensure accurate power measurement to reduces the minimal test time and maximize throughput.

2019.02.12

Application Notes 2019.02.10

On-Wafer Noise Figure Measurement Optimization

On-Wafer Noise Figure Measurement Optimization

Learn how to use cold-source techniques with a Keysight’s PNA-X microwave network analyzer, to achieve much greater accuracy in noise figure measurements.

2019.02.10

Application Notes 2019.02.10

Testing An Electrolytic Capacitor Using i3070 ICT System

Testing An Electrolytic Capacitor Using i3070 ICT System

A description of the alternate polarity test solution for electrolytic capacitor that mounted on printer circuit board assembly using the i3070 ICT system.

2019.02.10

Application Notes 2019.02.10

Setting and Adjusting Instrument Calibration Intervals

Setting and Adjusting Instrument Calibration Intervals

The right calibration interval helps to reduce risks that come with inaccurate measurements and erroneous pass or fail decisions. Learn more.

2019.02.10

Application Notes 2019.01.29

Designing and Testing 3GPP W-CDMA Base Transceiver Stations (including Femtocells)

Designing and Testing 3GPP W-CDMA Base Transceiver Stations (including Femtocells)

Physical layer aspects of W-CDMA BTS. Provides a brief overview of W-CDMA technology and femtocells. Discusses design issues, measurement concepts & performance tests required by 3GPP specifications.

2019.01.29

Application Notes 2019.01.29

Testing WLAN Devices to IEEE 802.11 Standards

Testing WLAN Devices to IEEE 802.11 Standards

This paper provides a survey of transmitter/receiver test requirements for IEEE 802.11 standards and presents an overview of Keysight’s solutions for WLAN testing.

2019.01.29

Application Notes 2019.01.27

VEE Extensible VEE Object (EVO) Developer’s Guideline

VEE Extensible VEE Object (EVO) Developer’s Guideline

Keysight VEE provides a way to extend Keysight VEE functionality by introducing Extensible VEE Object (EVO). Each EVO has its own GUI control and execution behavior, and is similar to generic VEE object.

2019.01.27

Application Notes 2019.01.27

Reducing Phase Noise at RF and Microwave Frequencies

Reducing Phase Noise at RF and Microwave Frequencies

Phase noise is one of the most critical performance parameters for signal generators. This paper explains the causes of phase noise and how it is specified.

2019.01.27

Application Notes 2019.01.27

Achieving Real Characteristics Using Impedance Analyzers

Achieving Real Characteristics Using Impedance Analyzers

Keysight’s impedance analyzers are the only instruments on the market that can provide unparalleled accuracy for real-characteristics component evaluation.

2019.01.27

Application Notes 2019.01.21

Resistance Measurements Using Source Measure Units

Resistance Measurements Using Source Measure Units

Learn how Keysight’s B2900A Series of SMUs allow you to measure resistance accurately and solve resistance measurements issues.

2019.01.21

Application Notes 2019.01.16

Transitioning to a PXI Test System

Transitioning to a PXI Test System

This application note describes the hardware and software options and trade-offs to consider when transitioning to a PXI test system.

2019.01.16

Application Notes 2019.01.16

Measuring Radar Signals with VSAs and Wideband Instruments

Measuring Radar Signals with VSAs and Wideband Instruments

This application note provides insights into measuring radar signals with vector signal analyzers (VSAs) and wideband instruments.

2019.01.16

Application Notes 2019.01.15

RF Streaming for Aerospace & Defense Applications

RF Streaming for Aerospace & Defense Applications

This application note will examine some of the challenges a system engineer should consider when developing RF recording and RF streaming for A&D solutions.

2019.01.15

Application Notes 2019.01.14

Using RF Recording Techniques to Resolve Interference Problems

Using RF Recording Techniques to Resolve Interference Problems

This application note introduces a method for using gapless recording to resolve RF interference problems in complex RF environments.

2019.01.14

Application Notes 2019.01.13

Enabling Breakthroughs in Terabit Research

Enabling Breakthroughs in Terabit Research

This application note explores new measurement capabilities that enable breakthroughs in terabit research. It outlines four groundbreaking applications: coherent optical, 802.11ay WLAN, high-speed digital buses, and 5G MIMO.

2019.01.13

Application Notes 2019.01.09

Methods for Characterizing and Tuning DC Inrush Current

Methods for Characterizing and Tuning DC Inrush Current

Learn how to measure DC inrush current. This article explains how a modern power supply makes an ideal tool for characterizing DC inrush current.

2019.01.09

Application Notes 2019.01.02

Polarized Capacitor Orientation Test in ICT Test Platform

Polarized Capacitor Orientation Test in ICT Test Platform

Learn why it is important to detect a wrongly oriented polarized capacitor and get it fixed as early as possible. Read more.

2019.01.02

Application Notes 2018.12.25

An RF Power Measurement Solution for Multi-Antenna MIMO Transmissions

An RF Power Measurement Solution for Multi-Antenna MIMO Transmissions

In this paper, new RF power measurement solution for EN 300 328 v1.8.1 & EN 301 893 v.1.7.1 requirements will be discussed using Keysight USB Peak Power Sensor & USB Modular Data Acquisition.

2018.12.25

Application Notes 2018.12.18

Connector Pin Recession and its Effect on Network Analyzer Accuracy

Connector Pin Recession and its Effect on Network Analyzer Accuracy

Outlines an experiment undertaken to assess the impact on the measurement of reflection coefficient when using 3.5 mm connectors.

2018.12.18

Application Notes 2018.12.13

Selecting a Calibration Vendor

Selecting a Calibration Vendor

Cost is important but are there any other questions that need to be asked in selecting a calibration supplier?

2018.12.13

Application Notes 2018.12.13

Defining Calibration Requirements for Electrical Test Equipment

Defining Calibration Requirements for Electrical Test Equipment

Learn some key steps to take to ensure you get a “proper” calibration? Read some suggestions to ensure your calibration requirements are defined and met.

2018.12.13

Application Notes 2018.12.12

Instrument Design Validation and Calibration Policy

Instrument Design Validation and Calibration Policy

Learn background information on design validation and calibration methods used when developing calibration verification procedures.

2018.12.12

Application Notes 2018.12.12

The Metrological and Financial Implications of a Clogged Fan Filter

The Metrological and Financial Implications of a Clogged Fan Filter

This article discussed the implications of having a clogged air filter and addresses solutions to helping in the prevention of clogged air filters.

2018.12.12

Application Notes 2018.12.11

Using Calibration to Optimize Performance

Using Calibration to Optimize Performance

Keysight can help ensure you get the calibration you expect (and deserve), and improve effective measurement performance through innovative use of calibration.

2018.12.11

Application Notes 2018.12.03

test3

test3

test

2018.12.03

Application Notes 2018.12.03

Understanding Measurement Risk

Understanding Measurement Risk

An intuitive explanation of these probability density functions drawing on Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate the relationship between a device’s true value and the corresponding measured value. Keywords: measurement risk, calibration, metrology, monte carlo

2018.12.03

Application Notes 2018.11.25

High Attenuation Measurement of Step Attenuators

High Attenuation Measurement of Step Attenuators

See Keysight’s solution for high attenuation measurement of step attenuators. The method used is based on a cascaded 2-port network and S-parameter theory.

2018.11.25

Application Notes 2018.11.20

Accelerate Debug and Evaluation of IoT Devices by Current Profile Analysis

Accelerate Debug and Evaluation of IoT Devices by Current Profile Analysis

You can solve the IoT device development challenges and dramatically improve the development efficiency and quality with current profile measurement with a Device Current Waveform Analyzer.

2018.11.20

Application Notes 2018.10.30

Making EMI Compliance Measurements

Making EMI Compliance Measurements

Overview of EMI compliance test requirements and measurement approaches, including conducted emission testing and radiated emission testing.

2018.10.30

Application Notes 2018.10.23

IEEE 1687 – Silicon Test to Board Test

IEEE 1687 – Silicon Test to Board Test

This application note is to provide an overview to the audience on the use case of IEEE 1687 in their test environment and how it benefits their testing.

2018.10.23

Application Notes 2018.10.19

Accelerate Compliance Testing with Automated Test Solutions

Accelerate Compliance Testing with Automated Test Solutions

Keysight’s HDMI test solution can help accelerate your compliance testing! Get an overview of the HDMI 2.1 interface and its test challenges!

2018.10.19

Application Notes 2018.10.18

9 Best Practices for Optimizing Your Signal Generator – Part 2

9 Best Practices for Optimizing Your Signal Generator – Part 2

Knowing the capabilities and performance of your signal generators is the first step to make accurate and consistent measurements. In this two-part Application Note, we discuss the best practices to optimize your signal generator.

2018.10.18

Application Notes 2018.10.18

Gain Compression Measurement with Lightwave Component Analyzer

Gain Compression Measurement with Lightwave Component Analyzer

Read step-by-step instructions and explore principles of gain compression measurements using Keysight’s Lightwave Component Analyzer.

2018.10.18

Application Notes 2018.10.17

9 Best Practices for Optimizing Your Signal Generator – Part 1

9 Best Practices for Optimizing Your Signal Generator – Part 1

Knowing the capabilities and performance of your signal generators is the first step to make accurate and consistent measurements. In this two-part Application Note, we discuss the best practices to optimize your signal generator.

2018.10.17

Application Notes 2018.10.10

Characterize, Validate, and Debug Advanced Devices with Precision Dynamic Current Measurements

Characterize, Validate, and Debug Advanced Devices with Precision Dynamic Current Measurements

This application note describes the measurement challenges in the precision dynamic current measurement in the various conditions, and Keysight’s new solution for them.

2018.10.10

Application Notes 2018.10.09

Current Measurements of MCU Low-Power Mode Transition with CX3300

Current Measurements of MCU Low-Power Mode Transition with CX3300

The CX3300 enables you to easily and accurately visualize wide-band and low-level current waveforms of the MCU low-power mode transition. Read more.

2018.10.09

Application Notes 2018.10.07

Solutions for Design and Evaluation of 5G Candidate Waveforms

Solutions for Design and Evaluation of 5G Candidate Waveforms

This application note provided insight into using simulation to gain deeper insight into 5G communication systems and their waveforms.

2018.10.07

Application Notes 2018.10.06

Probe Soldering Guidelines for Keysight InfiniiMax Probes

Probe Soldering Guidelines for Keysight InfiniiMax Probes

There are various ways to connect test instrumentation probes to devices under test (DUTs). One such method is soldering, which provides a reliable connection and minimizes parasitic probing effects by keeping wire lengths and connections as short as possible. Many of Keysight’s high performance oscilloscope probes utilize soldered connections. As probes and devices continue to shrink, using the correct tools and soldering skills becomes even more critical in order to avoid damage and connectivity issues. This guide provides helpful tips, recommended tools, and techniques specific to Keysight probes to help test engineers make the most out of their soldered-in probes and connections.

2018.10.06

Application Notes 2018.10.04

Bluetooth® Low Energy Current Consumption using the CX3300

Bluetooth® Low Energy Current Consumption using the CX3300

The CX3300 allows you to easily visualize wideband low-level, previously undetectable current waveforms while reducing the power consumption of BLE devices.

2018.10.04

Application Notes 2018.09.25

Maximize Battery Life of IoT Devices

Maximize Battery Life of IoT Devices

Battery life is critical for success in many IoT applications. Read about three key insights that are necessary for maximizing battery life of IoT Devices.

2018.09.25

Application Notes 2018.09.19

Bench Power Supply Buying Guide

Bench Power Supply Buying Guide

Having problems deciding which DC bench power supply you need? This app note will walk you through the considerations for buying a DC power supply.

2018.09.19

Application Notes 2018.09.18

Bench-Top Test and Debug of Power Transient Issues for Automotive and Aerospace/Defense Applications

Bench-Top Test and Debug of Power Transient Issues for Automotive and Aerospace/Defense Applications

Using the N6705A for bench-top test and debug of power transient issues for automotive and aerospace/defense applications.

2018.09.18

Application Notes 2018.09.17

Pulse, Pattern, Function, and Arbitrary Waveform Generators

Pulse, Pattern, Function, and Arbitrary Waveform Generators

Choose the best signal generator and get the most from it. This paper discusses the key features and applications of Keysight signal generators.

2018.09.17

Application Notes 2018.09.12

Network Analyzer Dynamic Range – Understanding and Improving

Network Analyzer Dynamic Range – Understanding and Improving

Learn how to increase dynamic range of your vector network analyzer to improve characterization of your device without impacting speed or characterization of other parameters.

2018.09.12

Application Notes 2018.09.10

How to Select the Right Oscilloscope Current Probe

How to Select the Right Oscilloscope Current Probe

Explore the principles of oscilloscope current probes, the advantages and limitations of different types, and select the right current probe to get the best results.

2018.09.10

Application Notes 2018.08.28

Functional Testing of Automotive DC-DC Converter ECUs

Functional Testing of Automotive DC-DC Converter ECUs

This paper discusses emulation of input signals, load simulations and measurements for testing automotive DC-DC converter electronic control units and the TS-8989 functional tester.

2018.08.28

Application Notes 2018.08.19

Bench DC Power Supply Testing

Bench DC Power Supply Testing

This application note describes seven features of the new E36300 series triple output bench power supplies that you didn't expect from a bench power supply.

2018.08.19

Application Notes 2018.08.16

Tips for Making Better AC RMS Measurements with DMM

Tips for Making Better AC RMS Measurements with DMM

This app note explains different techniques DMMs use to measure AC RMS values, how the signal affects the measurements, and how to avoid measurement error.

2018.08.16

Application Notes 2018.08.15

Accurately measure path loss for over the air transmitter and receiver measurements

Accurately measure path loss for over the air transmitter and receiver measurements

This application note describes how to improve the accuracy of the Keysight X8711A by properly measuring path loss and applying the right system offset in the test plan.

2018.08.15

Application Notes 2018.08.12

Improve Repeatability of Test and Arbitrary Waveforms

Improve Repeatability of Test and Arbitrary Waveforms

Keysight function generators provide 3 benefits for generating arbitrary waveforms. It is easy to import simulated data from a thumb drive. Learn more.

2018.08.12

Application Notes 2018.08.07

SENT Automotive Sensor Physical Layer Testing Using Keysight InfiniiVision X-Series Oscilloscopes

SENT Automotive Sensor Physical Layer Testing Using Keysight InfiniiVision X-Series Oscilloscopes

SENT automotive sensor physical layer testing using Keysight InfiniiVision X-Series oscilloscopes.

2018.08.07

Application Notes 2018.08.02

Using Real-Time Analysis Techniques in Wireless Measurements

Using Real-Time Analysis Techniques in Wireless Measurements

Learn what real-time analysis is and the functions of Keysight real-time spectrum analyzers that can be used to accelerate wireless system design.

2018.08.02

Application Notes 2018.07.24

How to Make the Best Switch Mode Power Supply Measurements

How to Make the Best Switch Mode Power Supply Measurements

Learn quick and easy way to use oscilloscope power measurement options to analyze the reliability and efficiency of switching power supplies.

2018.07.24

Application Notes 2018.07.24

An Overview of the Electrical Validation of 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T Devices

An Overview of the Electrical Validation of 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T Devices

The technology used in these ports, commonly known as “LAN” or “NIC” ports, is usually one of the 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T standards or a combination of them.

2018.07.24

Application Notes 2018.07.11

Evolved Testing Methods to Achieve DDR4 Compliance

Evolved Testing Methods to Achieve DDR4 Compliance

DDR memory design must be faster, while designs must shrink and use less power. Gain design insight early so you can meet product quality, interoperability, and time-to market goals.

2018.07.11

Application Notes 2018.07.11

NewSpace Testing

NewSpace Testing

Learn a new cost model that applies to each stage of the satellite lifecycle to help you reduce the “cost of confidence” in NewSpace systems and payloads.

2018.07.11

Application Notes 2018.07.02

On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components – Rev2

On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components – Rev2

This paper explains the principles of on-wafer measurements on opto-electronic components using Keysight’s N437xB/C/D Lightwave Component Analyzers. Learn more.

2018.07.02

Application Notes 2018.06.27

A Framework for Understanding: Deriving the Radar Range Equation

A Framework for Understanding: Deriving the Radar Range Equation

Radar scans three-dimensional space to gather information about detected objects such as location, shape and speed. This entire process is described in this app note by the radar range equation.

2018.06.27

Application Notes 2018.06.20

Bandwidth Boosting Techniques for the Infiniimax Probe Amp and Probe Head

Bandwidth Boosting Techniques for the Infiniimax Probe Amp and Probe Head

Keysight InfiniiMax differential probes are DSP corrected to have a flat magnitude and phase response to provide the highest possible accuracy. The bandwidth chosen to correct to is typically around 3dB non-corrected bandwidth. Usually, extending the bandwidth much beyond that point will increase the noise floor, and if pushed even further, can cause unrealistic noise artifacts. This application note presents the techniques used to extend the bandwidth performance of the InfiniiMax 1169A/B and the N5381A/B solder-in head using the PrecisionProbe application on Infiniium realtime oscilloscope.

2018.06.20

Application Notes 2018.06.11

On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components

On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components

This paper explains the principles of on-wafer measurements on opto-electronic components using Keysight’s N437xB/C/D Lightwave Component Analyzers. Learn more.

2018.06.11

Application Notes 2018.06.06

Radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) Applications

Radar and Electronic Warfare (EW) Applications

Choosing the right emitter generation source is crucial in testing radar and electronic warfare applications to avoid over specified equipment. Learn more.

2018.06.06

Application Notes 2018.06.05

Wide Range of Resistance Measurement Solutions from µ? to P?

Wide Range of Resistance Measurement Solutions from µ? to P?

This application note introduces keysight's resistance measurement solution, and discuss major error factors in resistance measurements and how to eliminate those error factors.

2018.06.05

Application Notes 2018.05.31

Achieving Metrology-grade Results in Vector Network Analysis at Millimeter-wave Frequencies

Achieving Metrology-grade Results in Vector Network Analysis at Millimeter-wave Frequencies

Millimeter-wave expertise and new solution for design, simulation, test and analysis in millimeter wave frequencies.

2018.05.31

Application Notes 2018.05.24

Developing IEEE 1687 Tests on N1125A x1149 Boundary Scan Analyzer

Developing IEEE 1687 Tests on N1125A x1149 Boundary Scan Analyzer

This application note provides an overview of the IEEE 1687 standard and its implementation in board test. It then describes the steps to develop tests on x1149.

2018.05.24

Application Notes 2018.05.23

Wireless Testing For IoT Medical Devices Part 1

Wireless Testing For IoT Medical Devices Part 1

This application brief explores how Keysight’s signal generators help technical professionals by generating various wireless and cellular signals for their design validation and verification work during medical device testing.

2018.05.23

Application Notes 2018.05.23

Wireless Testing For IoT Medical Devices Part 2

Wireless Testing For IoT Medical Devices Part 2

This application brief explores how Keysight’s signal generators help technical professionals by generating various wireless and cellular signals for their design validation and verification work during medical device testing.

2018.05.23

Application Notes 2018.05.15

Top 5 challenges in IoT device manufacturing test

Top 5 challenges in IoT device manufacturing test

IoT devices are under pressure to be smaller, cost less and last longer than previous designs, putting pressure on manufacturing test of these devices to be faster, less costly, and easier to configure than ever. Learn the new approach for RF test which performs manufacturing test in a simple and inexpensive way.

2018.05.15

Application Notes 2018.05.14

Integrate Collaborative Robot (Cobot) with i3070 ICT Test Platform

Integrate Collaborative Robot (Cobot) with i3070 ICT Test Platform

Improve production line quality, efficiency, and reduce human dependency by integrating the collaborative robot (Cobot) with the i3070 ICT test platform.

2018.05.14

Application Notes 2018.05.09

Battery LIfe Challenges in IoT Wireless Sensors and the Implication for Test

Battery LIfe Challenges in IoT Wireless Sensors and the Implication for Test

This application note discusses battery life challenges in IoT wireless sensors and the implications of test.

2018.05.09

Application Notes 2018.04.10