Characterizing Nonlinear Behavior in Active Devices – An Evaluation of X-parameter

Application Notes

All active devices exhibit nonlinear behavior to varying degrees. When researching and designing high-performance, active RF devices, it is critical to characterize this behavior so that it can be utilized and used in the design process. A prime example of one such active device is the power amplifier (PA), often considered an indispensible component in RF and microwave communication systems.

This application note examines three different modeling techniques that can be used to capture nonlinear behavior in a PA: the more conventional S2D and P2D models, and the more recently commercialized X-parameter model. For evaluation purposes, individual models will be developed based on the measurement results of a surface mounted RFIC amplifier using each of the three techniques. Simulation results will then be compared to identify the different model’s capabilities.


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