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Signal Integrity Analysis Series Part 1: Single-Port TDR, TDR/TDT, and 2-Port TDR - Application Note
This Application Note focuses on part 1: those which use a single-port TDR, those which use TDR/TDT, and those which use 2-port TDR.

Application Note 2019-04-25

Using Microwave Switches When Testing High Speed Serial Digital Interfaces
Many high speed digital interfaces use multiple lanes to achieve their system's throughput requirements. Most issues associated with this can be resolved with a switching network.

Application Note 2019-04-03

TDECQ Part II, Manufacturing Test Recommendations - White Paper
An overview of how to make a compliant TDECQ measurement on a PAM4 optical transmitter

Application Note 2019-03-29

TDECQ Testing or PAM4 Optical Transceivers - White Paper
An overview of how to make a compliant TDECQ measurement on a PAM4 optical transmitter

Application Note 2019-03-26

Everything You Need to Know About Coherent Optical Modulation - Application Compendium
This is an introduction to the fundamentals of coherent optical modulation techniques.

Application Note 2019-03-25

PDF PDF 12.70 MB
Residual BER - White Paper
Residual BER budgets are essential for maintaining the efficiency of your transmit and receive systems. The most important contribution of residual BER pre¬diction is that it demonstrates mathematical relationships between BER performance and relates key analog metrics. These metrics are used to specify components to digital bit errors, which are used to evaluate systems. This bridges the gap between the network’s service metric and radio engineers’ analog component metrics.

Application Note 2019-02-20

USB 2.0 Compliance Testing with Infiniium Oscilloscopes - Application Note
This Application Note discusses the solution for the USB 2.0 test suite. The Keysight solution is the only one-box solution that uses the official USB-IF scripts for precompliance ans compliance testing.

Application Note 2019-01-29

Evaluating Oscilloscope Bandwidths for Your Application - Application Note
How much bandwidth does your oscilloscope really need? Learn how to choose the correct bandwidth oscilloscope for your application.

Application Note 2019-01-01

Forward Error Correction Solutions - ABCs of Bit Error Rate Testers - White Paper
High data rates, smaller signals, and compressed channels create encoding errors due to unreliable or noisy communication channels. Learn how to combat these errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC) solutions.

Application Note 2018-10-30

Gain Compression Measurement with Lightwave Component Analyzer
This application note is intended to assist Gain Compression Measurement using the N437xD/E Lightwave Component Analyzer.

Application Note 2018-10-17

Calibrating Optical Paths in Spectral Test Station Using N7700A IL/PDL SW Engine - Application Note
Optical IL and PDL of a device relate the signal output from the device with the input signal, previously recorded or calibrated as reference measurement. For best results, the reference is repeated periodically and made with the same settings to be used on the device. By using IL de-embedding, the reference data can be applied to multiple optical paths without repeating at each port.

Application Note 2018-10-10

Pulse, Pattern, Function, and Arbitrary Waveform Generators - Application Note
This Keysight family of pulse, pattern, function and arbitrary waveform generators can help you verify and characterize digital or analog systems, products, and components.

Application Note 2018-09-17

Error Analysis of PAM4 Signals - Application Brief
Increasing demands for a connected world with instant data access continues to drive Ethernet, 64G fiber channel, CEI-56G and other next generation data center networking links.

Application Note 2018-08-17

Wafer and Chip-Level Optical Test Solving Polarization Alignment with the IL/PDL Test System
Optical testing of wafer and chips for photonic integrated circuits requires attention to the polarization of the input light. This is supported by the N7700A application software.

Application Note 2018-08-16

An Overview of the Electrical Validation of 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T - Application Note
The technology used in these ports, commonly known as “LAN” or “NIC” ports, is usually one of the 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, and 1000BASE-T standards or a combination of them.

Application Note 2018-07-25

Wavelength and Polarization Dependence of 100G-LR4 Components - Application Note
This application note describes our solution based on the new 81606A or 81608A tunable lasers, for measuring the wavelength and polarization dependence of components for 100G optical links that multiplex multiple wavelengths. Both passive fiber optic components and receiver optical subassemblies are addressed.

Application Note 2018-07-13

On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components Using the Lightwave Component Analyzers - Rev.2
This document describes the principles of on-wafer measurements of opto-electronic components using a Lightwave Component Analyzer and provides step-by-step instructions needed to set up a calibration kit prior to the on-wafer calibration, to perform the electronic calibration and to deembed the wafer probes.

Application Note 2018-07-03

On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components Using LCA's
This document describes the principles of on-wafer measurements on opto-electronic components

Application Note 2018-06-12

BER Measurement Using Real-Time Oscilloscope Controlled from M8070A - Application Note
The scope of this application note is to explain the BER measurement procedure using the M8045A pattern generator and DSAZ634A oscilloscope when controlled from M8070A system software.

Application Note 2017-12-13

What is the difference between an equivalent time and a real-time oscilloscope? - Application Note
This document will discuss how each type of oscilloscope samples the incoming waveform and explain the trigger requirements.

Application Note 2017-12-05

Measuring Polarization Dependent Loss of Passive Optical Components - Application Note
A new document on the methods of characterizing passive optical components.

Application Note 2017-12-01

Understanding the Right Metrics to use when Evaluating Oscilloscope Quality - Application Note
For scopes with bandwidth in the GHz range, a quality metric involves characterizing the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) using effective number of bits (ENOB). How important is ENOB?

Application Note 2017-12-01

Bandwidth and Rise Time Requirements for Making Accurate Oscilloscope Measurements
How much oscilloscope bandwidth do you need and how fast does the rise time need to be to measure your signals accurately?

Application Note 2017-12-01

8 Hints for Better Scope Probings - Application Note
In this application note, you will find eight useful hints for selecting the right probe for your application and for making your oscilloscope probing better.

Application Note 2017-11-23

Coherent Optical Communications Test Challenges - Application Note
This Application Note focuses on the test and troubleshooting of next-generation fiber-based communication systems tasked with supporting 100 Gb/s, 400 Gb/s data rates and higher.

Application Note 2017-08-31

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