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Device Characterization and Data Analysis

DC/CV and RF modeling of semiconductor devices requires collecting a significant amount of measured data from different wafers over several temperatures. A typical DC/CV measurement test cell includes a semi-automated prober (such as a Cascade Microtech Elite 300) with thermal chuck, a DC Analyzer such as the Keysight B1500A or the Keysight E5270B and a switch matrix such as the Keysight B2200 if a probe card is used. To achieve higher throughput, some device modeling teams use the Keysight 4070/4080 Series Parametric Testers instead of bench top instruments.

An RF test cell typically includes a semi-automated prober with a thermal chuck, a DC Analyzer or power supply and Network Analyzer, such as the Keysight PNA. Bias networks are used at each port to combine DC and RF signals. The frequency range of these RF test cells may range from a few tens of MHz to 110GHz or higher.

In addition to DC and RF test cells, special measurement systems such as 1/f Noise systems may be required to measure low frequency noise and extract related parameters. Flicker and Random Telegraph Signal (RTS) noise measured data are also used to monitor process reliability in advanced CMOS technologies.

When acquiring measurements for modeling, the two major requirements are accuracy and efficiency. Accuracy is generally influenced by the instrument performance along with the quality and characteristics of the system components (e.g. cabling, connectors, bias networks, prober and probes, etc.). Good RF calibration and de-embedding play a key role in the measurement accuracy of RF measurements. Efficiency is primarily determined by the instrument speed, but is also influenced by the measurement software drivers and test algorithms. A major challenge is performing automated measurements over temperature. Due to wafer and hardware expansion (or contraction), the wafer mapping software may lose control of the alignment in the X, Y direction. Chuck or probe card expansion can result major contact problems or damage on the vertical (Z) direction. In general, pattern recognition technology is used to overcome these problems and enable automated wafer test measurements over temperature.

Automated measurement software, such as IC-CAP WaferPro must combine the ability to drive probers, switching matrixes and thermal chucks according to a predefined wafer map, with the ability to run complex DC/CV and RF measurements using a variety of instruments—from parametric testers to single box instruments. Furthermore, measured data must be analyzed to calculate Electrical Test (ET) data, such as Vth, Idmax, or fT. To learn more about how WaferPro meets these measurement challenges, refer to IC-CAP Wafer Professional Measurement (WaferPro).

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