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Download Your Free Copies of the Latest PNA and PNA-X Application Notes

Welcome to the PNA family of microwave network analyzers for measuring passive and active devices. The PNA Series is the industry's highest performing microwave network analyzer and the PNA-X Series of microwave network analyzers is the world's most advanced and flexible single-connection microwave test engine.

Get in-depth measurement knowledge with Keysight's PNA application notes:

An Evaluation of X-parameter*, P2D and S2D Models for Characterizing Nonlinear Behavior in Active Devices Application Note 1408-22 (12 pages)
Abstract: All active devices exhibit nonlinear behavior to varying degrees. When researching and designing high-performance, active RF devices, it is critical to characterize this behavior so that it can be utilized and used in the design process. This application note examines three different measurement and modeling techniques that can be used to capture nonlinear behavior in a PA: the more conventional S2D and P2D models, and the more recently commercialized X-parameter model.

Active Device Characterization in Pulsed Operation Using the PNA-X Application Note 1408-21 (42 pages)
Abstract: This application note discusses pulsed S-parameter measurements using the PNA-X Series and measurement techniques that enable power-dependent active device characterization including compression and distortion. It provides a brief summary of pulsed-RF measurement types. Two detection techniques (wideband and narrowband detection) are also explained specifically using the PNA-X architecture and methodologies.

High Power Amplifier Measurements Using Keysight’s Nonlinear Vector Network Analyzer  Application Note 1408-19 (30 pages)
Abstract: High-power devices are common building blocks in RF and microwave communication systems. Mobile phones, base-stations and satellite systems all depend on high-power amplifiers. Accurately characterizing the linear and nonlinear performance of such high-power devices is a difficult and critical factor in the design and verification process. Learn how to efficiently and accurately test high-power amplifiers this informative application note.


High-Accuracy Noise Figure Measurements Using the PNA-X Series Network Analyzer  Application Note 1408-20 (60 pages)
Abstract: Noise figure is an important figure-of-merit that describes the amount of excess noise contributed by an amplifier or frequency converter. Measurement accuracy is very important, in both R&D and manufacturing environments. This application note discusses the sources of error in noise figure measurements and how they can be overcome using advanced error-correction methods. Learn how to make the industry’s most accurate noise figure measurements using this note.