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# Keysight Education Resources - Java Animations

In engineering school, we learn to represent sinusoidal wave forms with vectors. But a paper textbook can't do justice to a time-varying vector. The java animations below add life to vectors and help the student visualize engineering fundamentals.

## Java Animations

• IQ Modulation  - This program provides some insight into the workings of an I/Q (in-phase/quadrature) modulator by plotting vectors (phasors), waveforms, and symbols on the I/Q plane.
• Smith Chart  - This program introduces the Smith Chart and demonstrates how it can be used to relate a transmission line reflection coefficient to the load impedance.
• Wave Propagation along a Transmission Line  - This program illustrates the propagation of a signal along a transmission line.
• Single-Side-Band Demodulation  - This simulation demonstrates the error in demodulating a single-sideband signal as a function of the relative amplitude of the reinserted carrier. The program compares the demodulated waveform to the modulating waveform and shows the difference.
• Amplitude Modulation  - This simulation demonstrates the original amplitude modulation method used for transmitting audio signals over radio frequency waves. It is still used today in AM radio. This applet demonstrates the modulation process.
• Generating Waveforms with Vectors  - Any waveform, from a pure sine wave to a complex cardiac waveform, can be created by adding a specific set of sine waves. This simulation shows what happens when you add in-phase harmonics to a sine wave. It also shows the equivalent rotating vectors, which, in the author's view, make the mathematical process easier to understand.
• Generating Pulses  - This applet shows the huge number of harmonics of the pulse repetition frequency that are necessary to reproduce a low duty-cycle pulse train. Practically speaking, this shows that if you want to amplify a very low duty-cycle pulse train, you need an amplifier with large bandwidth. Notice that with a duty cycle of 10%, it takes more than ten harmonics to produce a good pulse. The more bandwidth the amplifier has, the more harmonics it can pass, and the faster the "rise time" of the pulse can be. You may choose between two different views: a standard view displaying each of the component waveform and a composite three-dimensional view.
• 3D View Generating Pulses
• Time Domain vs. Frequency Domain  - The 3-d plot of frequency, amplitude and time shows the fundamental of a sine wave and up to 3 harmonics, as they are formed by rotating vectors. It's another way to view the construction of a complex waveform.
• Measurement Uncertainty
• Superheterodyne Spectrum Analyzer  - This program illustrates the workings of a superheterodyne spectrum analyzer.

## Computer Based Training

• AM Fundamentals - AM Fundamentals is a Computer-Based Learning package which runs directly from the link below. Give your students a head start on learning about modulation index, sidebands, frequency and time domain, and all the underpinnings necessary for a good grounding in communications. Developed by Cal Poly. Repackaged for the WWW by ASK International. This file is 1.67 MB in size. (Right Click and "Save As" to download the zip file. Follow the instructions)
• FM Fundamentals - FM Fundamentals are presented in seven interactive modules covering basic modulation concepts, narrowband frequency modulation, frequency modulation versus phase modulation, basic frequency modulation parameters, and demodulation techniques. Quick to load on your Windows PC. Developed by Cal Poly. Repackaged for the WWW by ASK International. (Right Click and "Save As" to download the zip file. Follow the instructions)
• Lightwave Fundamentals - With fiber-optic cable currently being added to our world at the rate of 100 kilometers per hour, it's important that students understand a little about the subject. This interactive tutor discusses the types of fibers, modes of transmission, light sources, and more. Developed by Cal Poly. Windows-based PC. (Right Click and "Save As" to download the zip file. Follow the instructions)
• ParBERT 81250 Tester Tutorial - The Keysight 81250 Guided Tour/Tutorial/Getting Started provides a comprehensive overview of the Keysight 81250 Parallel Bit Error Ratio Tester. This file is 19.6 MB in size. (Right Click and "Save As" to download the zip file. Follow the instructions)

## Spectrum Analysis: Amplitude & Frequency Modulation

• Application Note - This application note discusses the measurement of amplitude and frequency modulated signals using a spectrum analyzer. The basic theory behind AM and FM modulation including time and frequency domain representations is presented.
• Interactive Amplitude Modulation model - In amplitude modulation the amplitude of a slowly varying signal is impressed onto the amplitude of a rapidly varying signal. Check out the details from "ReadMe_AM" file. Note: To view the AM Interactive Demo, unzip the file and click on liveAM_popup.html.
• Interactive Frequency Modulation model - In frequency modulation, the frequency of a rapidly varying signal is modulated by a slowly varying signal. Check out the details from "ReadMe_FM" file. Note: To view the FM Interactive Demo, unzip the file and click on liveFM_popup.html.