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RF + Microwave

For most of your RF & Microwave measurement needs, you can find application & solution information here.

Be sure to check the library of application notes for detailed information on using your equipment and successfully completing the measurements you need.

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Testing and Troubleshooting Digital RF Communications Receiver Designs (AN 1314) 
This Application Note covers the fundamental measurement principles involved in testing and troubleshooting digital communications receivers, particularly those used in digital RF cellular systems. Measurement setups are provided for receiver performance tests and troubleshooting tips are given.

Application Note 2018-01-26

Signal Analysis Measurement Fundamentals, Optimize Noise Floor, Resolution Bandwidth, and More 
Learn measurement fundamentals to optimize your signal analysis for greater insights

Application Note 2017-12-13

Network Analysis - De-embedding and Embedding S-Parameter Networks (1364-1) 
At RF and microwave frequencies, it becomes difficult to directly measure devices with nonstandard connectors (for example, devices using surface-mount packaging).

Application Note 2017-09-07

Programming with the N937xA PXIe Vector Network Analyzers - Application Note 
This application note discusses the process of developing a C# application using an IVI driver as the programming remote driver for the M937xA PXIe vector network analyzer.

Application Note 2015-07-07

PDF PDF 4.75 MB
Innovative Passive Intermodulation (PIM) and S-parameter Measurement Solution with the ENA 
This application note introduces the solution that combines PIM and S-parameter measurements by using the vector network analyzer.

Application Note 2014-12-05

On-Wafer SOLT Calibration Using 4-port PNA-L Network Analyzers - Application Note 
This documentation is intended for on-wafer applications using the 4-port, 20 GHz, PNA-L network analyzer with two dual probes to achieve full 4-port on-wafer calibrations manually. This application note provides the step-by-step instructions needed to set up a calibration kit in order to perform a 4-port SOLT (Short-Open-Load-Thru) calibration using only three thrus.

Application Note 2014-02-06

Active Device Characterization in Pulse Operation Using the PNA/PNA-X - Application Note 
This AN discusses pulsed S-parameter measurements using the PNA-X series and measurement techniques that enable power-dependent active device characterization including compression and distortion.

Application Note 2013-06-19

High-Accuracy Noise Figure Measurements Using the PNA-X Series Network Analyzer – App Note 1408-20 
This application note discusses the unique challenges involved in minimizing noise figure.

Application Note 2013-01-31

PNA - Pulsed-RF S-Parameter Measurements Using Wideband and Narrowband Detection (AN 1408-12) 

Application Note 2007-11-28

Backplane Differential Channel Microprobe Characterization in time and Frequency Domains 

Application Note 2007-05-09

PDF PDF 769 KB
Introduction to the Fixture Simulator Function of the ENA Series RF Network Analyzers 
This product note describes what the fixture simulator of the ENA Series is, and how it helps customers in various network measurement applications. The fixture simulator function includes de-embedding, embedding, and balanced measurements.

Application Note 2006-03-13

Investigating Microvia Technology for 10 Gbps Higher Telecommunications Systems 

Application Note 2005-04-05

PDF PDF 1.37 MB
Correlation of Simulation vs. Measurement in Frequency and Time Domain 
For multi-gigahertz serial data link.

Application Note 2004-12-10

PDF PDF 1.24 MB
PNA - Pulsed Measurement Accuracy (1408-11) 

Application Note 2004-02-17

In-Fixture Characterization Using the ENA Series RF Network Analyzer with Cascade Microtech... 
This product note explains a new approach for in-fixture characterization, using the Keysight ENA Series RF network analyzer with Cascade Microtech's probing system.

Application Note 2003-10-13

Network Analysis Solutions Advanced Filter Tuning Using Time Domain Transforms (AN 1287-10) 
Tuning multi-stage, coupled-resonator band-pass filters is difficult due to interactions between resonator and coupling tuning. To achieve the proper pass-band response and to get low return loss you must precisely tune the frequency of each resonator and precisely set each coupling between the...

Application Note 2003-05-25

Spectrum Analysis: Amplitude and Frequency Modulation (AN 150-1) - Application Note 
Modulation is the act of translating some low-frequency or base-band signal (voice, music, data) to a higher frequency. Why do we modulate signals? There are at least two reasons: to allow the simultaneous transmission of two or more baseband signals by translating them to different frequencies...

Application Note 2001-10-01

PDF PDF 1.08 MB
Network Analysis Basics - 10 Hints for Making Better Network Analyzer Measurements (AN 1291-1B) 
This Application Note contains hints to help you understand and improve your use of network analyzers, and a summary of network analyzers and their capabilities.

Application Note 2001-09-17

Combining Network and Spectrum Analyses and IBASIC (AN 1288-1) 
Active components (and now even some passive components like crystal filters require analysis to characterize linear parameters (gain/loss, phase and group delay or S-parameters) as well as non-linear performance. Non-linear analysis is typically related to measuring signal distortion generated...

Application Note 2001-08-30

How to Measure Noise Accurately Using the Keysight Combination Analyzers (PN 4395/96-1) 
Product note comparing Keysight combination analyzers (4395A, 4396B) and conventional Keysight spectrum analyzers (4195A, 3588A, 3585A/B). Keysight no longers sells these products.

Application Note 2000-11-01

PNA Automation - Connectivity Advances for Component Manufacturers 
LAN-enabled instruments are launching a new era in test and measurement. The ability to integrate test instrumentation with IT infrastructure is having a profound effect on how data is acquired and used in a modern facility.

Application Note 2000-10-03

8753/8720 Pulsed Measurements - Application Note 
The aim of this Product Note is to show that under certain conditions, network analyzers such as the Keysight 8720ES and 8753ES can produce good results at a much lower cost.

Application Note 2000-05-01

PDF PDF 392 KB