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RF & Microwave

For most of your RF & Microwave measurement needs, you can find application & solution information here.

Be sure to check the library of application notes for detailed information on using your equipment and successfully completing the measurements you need.

Keysight RF and Digital Learning Center - A commitment to learning with industry experts

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10 Hints for Getting the Most from your Frequency Counter 
Maximize the results you get from your frequency counter through 10 hints from better from understanding the architecture to making faster measurements.

Application Note 2008-04-18

4 Steps for Making Better Power Measurements (AN 64-4D) - Application Note 
Before selecting a power meter and associated sensors, make sure that you have taken the 4 steps detailed in this note, which influence the accuracy, economy and technical match to your application.

Application Note 2006-04-26

Spectrum Analysis: Amplitude and Frequency Modulation (AN 150-1) - Application Note 
Modulation is the act of translating some low-frequency or base-band signal (voice, music, data) to a higher frequency. Why do we modulate signals? There are at least two reasons: to allow the simultaneous transmission of two or more baseband signals by translating them to different frequencies...

Application Note 2001-10-01

PDF PDF 1.08 MB
8 Hints for Making Better RF Counter Measurements 
This Brochure focuses on making better RF counter measurements by understanding the effects of counter architecture; recognizing the difference between resolution and accuracy, and scheduling calibration to match performance needs. In addition, the impact of timebase options is discussed along...

Application Note 2001-04-10

Examine GMSK Modulation in GSM and PCN Mobile Communications Systems (AN 1200-11) 
Current analog mobile communications systems have reached capacity limits in several large population centers. Future systems will utilize Time Division Multiple Access techniques to increase capacity. These new digital modulation techniques are difficult to characterize using conventional test...

Application Note 2000-09-01

Simplified Analysis of Phase-Locked Loop Capture and Tracking Range (AN 1200-7) 
The Keysight 53310A's ability to measure and display a signal's continuous frequency over time makes dynamic frequency analysis of PLLs easy. A direct measure of the PLL's capture and tracking range is obtained by monitoring the output frequency while the PLL is forced to go in and out of lock. A...

Application Note 2000-08-01

Fast Characterization of Pulse-Width Encoded Data (AN 1200-5) 
The built in fast histogram capability of the Keysight 53310A is a simple and easy way to analyze pulse width encoded data. In less than a second, it takes a hundred thousand pulse width measurements, rearranges the measurements in value order, then displays how often a given value occurred.

Application Note 2000-08-01

VCO Step Response Analysis Made Easy (AN 1200-3) 
The Keysight 53310A allows for an easy-to-use single pass technique for displaying the VCO's output frequency versus time. It makes rapid, high resolution frequency measurements in a back-to-back manner. This yields a full analysis of a VCO's step response in a single pass. For applications that...

Application Note 2000-08-01

Peak Deviation and Center Frequency Measurements for CT2 and DECT Radios (AN 1200-12) 
The use of digital modulation in mobile communications systems is growing rapidly. Information in the form of 1s and 0s is often transmitted as two different frequencies. This is known as minimum shift keying or GMSK if the data is filtered. Measuring the deviation accurately on a bursted signal...

Application Note 2000-08-01

4 Hints for Making Better Microwave Counter Measurements 
This Product Note provides four pertinent hints for making better microwave counter measurements, describes the advantages of using a microwave counter, and deals with the unique measurement problems created by the advancement in counter technology.

Application Note 1998-09-01

Fundamentals of Microwave Frequency Counters (AN 200-1) 
This somewhat lengthy, classic Application Note addresses the microwave counter designer's need for down-conversion techniques. It describes and compares techniques and outlines additional considerations in choosing a microwave counter. Includes some applications of the Keysight 5342A.

Application Note 1997-05-01

PDF PDF 219 KB
Analyzing Phase-Locked Loop Capture and Tracking Range (AN 358-13) 
This Application Note is for information only. Keysight no longer sells or supports these products.

Application Note 1990-10-01

PDF PDF 667 KB
Analyzing Phase-Locked Loop Transients in the Modulation Domain (AN 358-7) 
This Application Note is for information only. Keysight no longer sells or supports these products.

Application Note 1989-10-01

PDF PDF 658 KB
5370B Universal Time Interval Counter (AN 191-7) 
This Application Note is for information only. Keysight no longer sells or supports these products.

Application Note 1987-06-01

PDF PDF 8.34 MB
Timekeeping and Frequency Calibration (AN 52-2) 
This Application Note is for information only. Keysight no longer sells or supports these products.

Application Note 1976-07-01

PDF PDF 11.94 MB