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Fibre Channel Design and Test

Fibre Channel (FC) is a high-speed storage area network (SAN) technology used by IT professionals in data centers. FC connects servers, switches and routers with storage devices such as disk arrays and other external enterprise-grade storage systems. The initial design from the mid-1990s carried 100 Mbytes/s of data over a 1.0625 Gbaud optical link that was 8B/10B encoded. Subsequent implementations always doubled the data capacity – i.e., 2G/4G/8G/16G/32G FC transport 200/400/800/1600/3200 Mbytes/s. 2G, 4G and 8G FC doubled the signaling rate to 2.125, 4.25 and 8.5 Gbaud, respectively. However, the challenges of even faster data rates led to different encodings, such as 64b/66b at 16G FC, and even the introduction of Forward Error Correction (FEC). The resulting data rates are no longer aligned with the name (e.g., 16 GFC uses 14.025 Gbaud and 32G FC uses 28.05 Gbaud). In addition, parallel designs such as four individual fibers or one fiber using coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) technology quadruple the capacity to (128G FC) while leveraging the lower line-rate technology.

Technical specifications of Fibre Channel links as well as test methodologies are defined by the Technical Committee T11 within the InterNational Committee for Information Technology Standards (INCITS). Keysight Technology is a proud member of T11 and supports existing and evolving FC channel standards with a wide variety of test instruments and software applications. Many of the products shown below provide insights through advanced measurements that help engineers in R&D to push the limits of technologies and verify/validate new designs. The same products but in different configurations (or related products) then help manufacturing customers to test high volumes of optical transceivers, electrical semiconductors, interconnect products, printed circuit boards and other components.

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Overcoming Test Challenges of USB Type-C - Application Note 
This application note provides an introduction to the USB Type-C connector, the interface functions it provides, and test implications engineers face when integrating the connector into their designs.

Application Note 2016-08-10

Signal Integrity Analysis Series Part 1: Single-Port TDR, TDR/TDT, and 2-Port TDR - Application Note 
This Application Note focuses on part 1: those which use a single-port TDR, those which use TDR/TDT, and those which use 2-port TDR.

Application Note 2015-10-29

Digital Design & Interconnect Standards - Brochure 
Brochure shows Keysight’s high-speed digital solution set , a range of essential tools, measurement and simulation—that will help cut through the challenges of gigabit digital designs.

Brochure 2015-03-09

Digital Communication Analyzer (DCA), Measure Relative Intensity Noise (RIN) - Application Note 
Digital Communication Analyzer (DCA), Measure Relative Intensity Noise (RIN).

Application Note 2014-07-31

Jitter Analysis: The Dual-Dirac Model, RJ/DJ, and Q-Scale - Application Note 
This paper provides a complete description of the dual-Dirac model, how it is used in technology standards and a summary of how it is applied on different types of test equipment.

Article 2014-06-14

High Precision Time Domain Reflectometry - Application Note 
Time domain reflectometry (TDR) is a well-established technique for verifying the impedance and quality of signal pats in components, interconnects, and transmission lines.

Application Note 2014-01-23

Jitter Measurements on Long Patterns Using 86100DU-401 Advanced Waveform Analysis - Application Note 
To overcome pattern length limitations found in many of today’s jitter analysis tools, Keysight developed a Microsoft Office Excel-based application called 86100DU Option 401 Advanced Waveform Analysis

Application Note 2013-02-21

Techniques to Reduce Manufacturing Cost-of-Test of Optical Transmitters, Flex DCA Interface 
Keysight continues innovating test methodologies to assist manufacturing engineers in meeting or beating cost-of-test reduction goals.

Application Note 2011-12-22

Techniques for Higher Accuracy Optical Measurements - Application Note 
Learn techniques for high accuracy optical measurements using System Impulse Response Correction

Application Note 2011-09-21

Improving the Accuracy of Optical Transceiver Extinction Ratio Measurements (AN 1550-9) 
This paper discusses extinction ratio - measurement challenges and causes of measurement uncertainty & variability. In addition, it describes methods for reducing uncertainties caused by non-ideal performance of standard reference receivers.

Application Note 2009-02-21

Calibrating optical stress signals for characterizing 10 Gb/s optical transceivers - App Note 
Calibrating optical stress signals for characterizing 10 Gb/s optical transceivers

Application Note 2008-06-10

Solving Jitter Problems through Jitter Spectrum and Phase Noise Analysis 
Product Note

Application Note 2007-05-09

Precision Jitter Analysis Using the Keysight 86100C DCA-J - Application Note 
This product note provides a guide to making jitter measurements with the Keysight 86100C DCA-J.

Application Note 2007-03-07

Equalization: The Correction and Analysis of Degraded Signals - Application Note 
This whitepaper introduces engineers to the concepts of equalization and terms used in the development of emerging technologies that use standard materials (e.g., FR4) for buses and backplanes at ever higher rates.

Application Note 2005-09-15