X-parameters* are mathematically correct extension of S-parameters to characterize the relative phase and amplitudes of harmonics generated by non-linear components under large input power levels at all ports. It correctly characterizes impedance mismatches and frequency mixing behavior to allow accurate simulation of cascading non-linear X-parameter blocks, such as amplifiers and mixers in wireless design. Keysight’s Advanced Design System (ADS) software is engineered specifically to simulate and generate X-parameter models of multi-port, non-linear components or devices under load pull conditions.

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* "X-parameters" is a registered trademark of Keysight Technologies. The X-parameter format and underlying equations are open and documented. For more information click here.