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Impedance Measurement and Network Analysis

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Introduction

You face increasing technical and operational complexity. Keysight Technologies, Inc. measurement and application expertise helps you anticipate these growing complexities.

Keysight impedance analyzers, LCR meters and ENA series network analyzers support various applications for impedance and network analysis. This catalog provides the information of unique and new solutions that we cannot tell all in product brochures. Please find the solution that fits your case or helps your similar test challenge in this catalog, and contact Keysight to accelerate your business.

DC-DC Converter and Power Distribution Network (PDN) Measurements

Abstract

The E5061B-3L5 LF-RF network analyzer (5 Hz to 3 GHz) with the option 005 impedance analysis function is a comprehensive solution for evaluating frequency-domain characteristics of DC-DC converters (switching voltage regulators) and subsequent PCB power planes (PDNs: Power Distribution Networks) which distribute the converter’s DC output power to load devices such as LSIs and other electronic devices.

Test challenges

– Loop gain measurements by appropriately injecting the analyzer’s source signal.

– Milliohm impedance measurements of DC-DC converters, bypass capacitors, and PCB power planes.

– Low frequency coverage down to 10 or 100 Hz is necessary for DC-DC converter measurements. In addition, to evaluate the PDNs for high-speed LSIs, high frequency coverage up to the GHz range is needed.

How to solve

– The E5061B-3L5’s gain-phase test port with built-in 1 Mohm inputs (5 Hz to 30 MHz) enables you to perform in-circuit probing for the loop gain measurements easily. Also, injection transformers supplied by picotest ensures reliable source signal injection to the loop (recommendation: Picotest J2110A).

– The shunt-thru measurement method supported by the E5061B-3L5/005 provides accurate milliohm impedance measurements.

– The E5061B-3L5’s broad frequency range of 5 Hz to 3 GHz (at S-parameter test port) fully covers required test frequencies for DC-DC converters, bypass capacitors, and PDNs.

Customer type

R&D, education

PSRR in Linear Regulator/Low Dropout (LDO) Regulator

Abstract

The combination of the E5061B-3L5 LF-RF network analyzer (5 Hz to 3 GHz) and the picotest J2120A line injector offers DC current biased gain-phase measurements from the low frequency range. This enables PSRR measurements of linear regulators/LDOs (low dropout regulators), and PMICs (power management ICs) for mobile phones.

Test challenges

– Combining the analyzer’s AC source signal with the DC current of more than 1 Adc, which is necessary for linear regulators/LDOs but cannot be covered by the E5061B-3L5’s built-in DC bias source (up to 100 mAdc).

– Measuring high rejections (high attenuations) of more than 80 dB in the low frequency range, which was difficult with the traditional LF VNAs due to the ground loop error caused by the grounded receivers.

How to solve

– The picotest J2120A line injector (10 Hz to 10 MHz, up to 50 Vdc/5 Adc) enables you to combine the analyzer’s AC source signal with an external DC current easily up to 5 Adc. 

– The semi-floating receivers of the E5061B-3L5’s gain-phase test port (5 Hz to 30 MHz) enables high-attenuation measurements in the low frequency range accurately, eliminating the measurement error associated with the ground loop.

Customer type

R&D, education

OP Amp Circuit Measurements

Abstract

OP amp circuits are widely used for low-frequency analog signal conditioning of sensor systems, such as ultrasound sensors. Evaluating their frequency responses such as the gain/phase response and CMRR is essential for ensuring the system’s reliable operations. The E5061B-3L5 LF-RF network analyzer (5 Hz to 3 GHz) provides easy and accurate measurement solutions for evaluating OP amp circuits

Test challenges

– Choosing an appropriate high-impedance probing method, depending on the requirements of the dynamic range, frequency range, and the maximum allowable input capacitance (Cin).

– DC-biased measurement from the low frequency range is needed in some cases.

– Measuring high rejections (high attenuations) of more than 90 dB for evaluating CMRR and PSRR, which was difficult with the traditional LF VNAs due to the ground loop error caused by the grounded receivers.

How to solve

– The E5061B-3L5 offers the gain-phase test port with built-in 1 Mohm inputs (5 Hz to 30 MHz, Cin: depend on the test cable/probe), and the S-parameter test port with the 41800A active probe (5 Hz to 500 MHz, Cin=3 pF), and you can choose a suitable probing method for your applications.

– The E5061B-3L5 has the built-in DC bias source (up to 40 Vdc, max 100 mAdc) and you can easily perform DC-biased gain-phase measurements, without making an external DC bias circuit,

– The semi-floating receivers of the E5061B-3L5’s gain-phase test port provides accurate high-attenuation measurements in the low frequency range, eliminating the measurement error associated with the ground loop.

 If you also want to evaluate impedance characteristics of sensor elements, such as ultrasound resonators and antenna coils, the E5061B-005 impedance analysis function is the solution. See “Component impedance measurements in general R&D” in the next page.

Customer type

R&D, education

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