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Key Features & Specifications

  • Advanced low-frequency noise analyzer’s integration with PathWave WaferPro (WaferPro Express) enables turnkey noise measurements as well as measurement of DC characteristics, capacitance and RF S-parameters
  • Extremely low device noise measurement such as transistor linear region noise by newly designed LNA
  • State of the art new LNA also allows noise measurement in very low bias current
  • High power device noise measurement even in the high current like 1A
  • Improve measurement productivities by fast measurement speed even in the high accurate condition with number of averaging
  • Software module measures DC characteristics, 1/f noise, random telegraph noise and conducts data analysis
  • Keysight’s close collaboration with FormFactor enables a complete integrated on-wafer solution with automated control of all major wafer probing systems


The E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer enables fast, accurate and repeatable low-frequency noise (LFN) measurements on numerous device types. Now, thanks to tight integration with PathWave WaferPro (WaferPro Express) software, device modeling and characterization engineers can now add noise measurements to a larger suite that includes high-speed DC, capacitance and RF S-parameter measurements, all the while automating wafer prober control.

E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer

Figure 1: The new E4727B Advanced Low-Frequency Noise Analyzer (A-LFNA).


The applications are numerous; however, a few important ones are listed as follows.

  • Process design kit (PDK) development - Semiconductor device foundries enable fabless design centers to design components such as transceivers for mobile phones, frequency synthesizers, analog-to-digital converters and much more. To make this possible, the foundries must provide PDK’s with simulation models of the primitive devices. The simulation models must include noise effects on transistors (BJT, CMOS, etc.) and resistors. The noise models must be across all possible bias currents, temperatures and device geometries.
  • Manufacturing statistical process control and reliability - As an example, manufacturers of GaN devices may use noise measurements across their wafers as an early indicator of device reliability. Those devices that exhibit more noise are likely to fail sooner. Now we have a nondestructive way of assessing reliability, quite in contrast with standard accelerated life testing. Furthermore, for circuit applications where noise is a critical parameter, wafer level measurements may be used to track the evolution of noise performance across days, weeks and months of manufacturing.
  • IC noise specification - Integrated circuit manufacturers of operational amplifiers and linear voltage regulators often need to characterize input referred voltage noise as a critical specification in their datasheets; one wafer may contain >10 thousand such circuits. To efficiently measure and map circuit performance across the wafer (and even across lots of wafers), the probe and signal conditioning circuitry must be placed close to the device under test to improve grounding and minimize external noise influences.

Turnkey Measurements

The A-LFNA’s built-in measurement routines make DC and noise measurements turnkey. For example, to measure noise on an N-Type MOSFET, the system automatically chooses the source and load impedances that will best expose the intrinsic device noise. The engineer can accept these recommended settings or make changes, and a noise measurement is initiated. The A-LFNA then measures noise power spectral density (1/f noise) and noise in the time domain (RTN). Resulting data is plotted using a multiplot data display window. Various windows' tabs help facilitate common tasks such as evaluating device DC operating point and measuring the slope of the power spectral density curve. Noise data can also be analyzed and represented in device models using device modeling tools such as PathWave Model Builder (MBP) and PathWave Device Modeling (IC-CAP). Circuit designers can use these device models to ensure highly accurate RF and analog low-noise circuit design.

Automated RTN Solution using E4727E3 and B1500A

E4727E3 efficiently performs an automated RTN measurement on the wafer (at a low cost) using the B1500A Semiconductor Device Analyzer with the B1530A Waveform Generator/Fast Measurement Unit (WGFMU). It can improve the efficiency of RTN measurement and data analysis including wafer prober control.

Key features

  • Automated RTN and 1/f noise measurement and data analysis
  • Wafer mapping
  • Multiple data overlapping display
  • System noise floor display and data clipping


RTN and 1/f Noise Measurement System Comparison
RTN Software
for B1500A
Measurement Software   E4727P3
A-LFNA Measurement and
programming bundle software
A-LFNA Measurement and
programming bundle software
WGFMU Measurement
bundle software
License Type   Floating Floating Node-locked
Controller PC   M9037A
PXIe Embedded Controller
PXIe Embedded Controller
Windows PC
GPIB Interface   M9037A
Built-in GPIB Interface
(Micro-D 25 pin)
Built-in GPIB Interface
(Micro-D 25 pin)
USB GPIB Interface
(Keysight 82357B,
Supported Instrument   E4727B A-LFNA B1500A with
B1500A with
Target Device   FET, BJT, Diode,
Resistor, Circuit
Device Terminal Number   3, 4, 5, 6 3 3
Maximum Bias Voltage   +/-200 V +/-10 V +/-10 V
Maximum Bias Current   +/-100 mA +/-10 mA +/-10 mA
Noise Floor   1E-28 A2/Hz 1E-25 A2/Hz 1E-25 A2/Hz
Analog Frequency Bandwidth    30 m – 100 MHz   1 m – 16 MHz  1 m – 16 MHz 
Frequency Domain Measurement  Minimum Frequency 30 mHz 1 mHz  1 mHz 
  Maximum Frequency 100 MHz  16 MHz  16 MHz
Time Domain Measurement  Maximum Sampling Frequency 500 MHz  200 MHz  200 MHz 
  Minimum Sampling Interval 2 nsec 5 nsec  5 nsec 
  Maximum Sampling Number 224=16,777,216  221=2,097,152  221=2,097,152

Measurement Examples

WGFMU Measurement Example

Figure 2. Example of WGFMU measurement.

For more information on WGFMU, please see the links below.