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Electronic Measurement

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Attenuation Measurement of Step Attenuators - Application Note
Describes the T-matrix measurement method for achieving high accuracy in calibrating step attenuators.

Application Note 2015-05-20

PDF PDF 715 KB
Connector Pin Recession and its Effect on Network Analyzer Accuracy - White Paper
Outlines an experiment undertaken to assess the impact on the measurement of reflection coefficient when using 3.5 mm connectors.

Application Note 2015-05-20

PDF PDF 406 KB
Uncertainty Analysis for Uncorrelated Input Quantities - White Paper
The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) has been widely adopted in the different fields of the industry and science. Learn how to use for uncorrelated input quantities.

Application Note 2015-05-19

PDF PDF 502 KB
Fully-Automatic DMM Calibration System - White Paper
Describes a fully-automatic calibration system for digtial multimeters (DMMs), including the uncertainty estimation of DC Voltage measurements.

Application Note 2015-05-15

PDF PDF 1008 KB
Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis - Application Note 1287-1
This application note explores the fundamental principles of vector network analysis. The discussion includes the common parameters (S-parameters). RF fundamentals such as transmission lines and the Smith chart will also be reviewed.

Application Note 2015-05-15

A Guard-Band Strategy for Managing False-Accept Risk - White Paper
Presents guard-band strategy for managing false-accept risk with only limited knowledge of the a priori probability that a device is in tolerance.

Application Note 2015-05-13

PDF PDF 260 KB
Selecting a Calibration Vendor - Application Note
Cost is important but are there any other questions that need to be asked in selecting a calibration supplier?

Application Note 2015-05-07

Paperless Calibration - Application Note
Discusses the benefits of storing calibration records electronically rather than on paper in filing cabinets and explains why having a hard copy of these files is not necessary.

Application Note 2015-05-07

PDF PDF 86 KB
Evaluation of the Performance of a State-of-the-Art Digital Multimeter - White Paper
Describes several methods used to verify the performance of a very accurate automatically calibrated DMM, the HP 3458A.

Application Note 2015-05-07

PDF PDF 864 KB
Instrument Design Validation and Recommended Calibration Policy - Application Note
Provides background information on the test philosophies and methods used when developing instrument verification and adjustment procedures.

Application Note 2015-05-07

The Metrological & Financial Implications of a Clogged Fan Filter - Application Note
This article discussed the implications of having a clogged air filter and addresses solutions to helping in the prevention of clogged air filters.

Application Note 2015-05-07

Language of Specifications - Application Note
This paper explains some of the arcane language used in describing a product's characteristics.

Application Note 2015-05-07

PDF PDF 695 KB
Sensitivity Analysis of One-port Characterized Devices in Vector Network Analyzer Calibrations
Results of a study on the use of characterized devices in microwave vector network analyzer (VNA) calibrations and measurements. A review of the theory of one-port characterized device calibration.

Application Note 2015-05-05

PDF PDF 290 KB
Too Much Calibration? - White Paper
This paper explains the variables at work in the world of calibration - how they can be used to find the elusive balance point between cost and confidence, or "too much" and "not enough" calibration.

Application Note 2015-05-05

PDF PDF 569 KB
Establishing Traceability for Quantities Derived from Multiple Traceable Quantities - White Paper
Provides method of developing traceability for measurements (eg. phase noise) that have no SI units.

Application Note 2015-05-05

PDF PDF 413 KB
Using a Manufacturer's Specification as a Type B Error Contribution - White Paper
Examines the implications of using a manufacturer's specification in an uncertainty analysis; and how calibration laboratories use uncertainty data in their quality systems and customer-facing documents.

Application Note 2015-04-27

PDF PDF 1.03 MB
Isolating Frequency Measurement Error and Sourcing Frequency by Robert Leiby
When performing a calibration, the risk of incorrectly declaring a device as in-tolerance (false-accept risk) is dependent upon several factors such as the specified tolerance limit and guard band.

Application Note 2015-04-27

PDF PDF 3.09 MB
Qualitative Assessment on the Effects of Damage Connectors & Interfaces in Fiber Optic Measurements
To qualify or predict the effects of damaged fiber optic connectors or optical interfaces, a qualitative assessment can ensure that these connectors are kept in a condition of optimum performance.

Application Note 2015-04-24

PDF PDF 3.18 MB
Calibration Process Innovation Using Non-Required Guard Banded Testing by Richard Ogg
Calibration services vary as to how to set the acceptance limits compared to the required tolerance. Using a guard band to reduce the acceptance limit will increase the confidence in the calibration.

Application Note 2015-04-24

PDF PDF 258 KB
Business Considerations of Equipment Refresh in a Calibration Laboratory - White Paper
Calibration laboratories operate in a world of constant change, and this is never more evident than in the products that are requested to be calibrated.

Application Note 2015-04-21

Setting and Adjusting Instrument Calibration Intervals - Application Note
This document explains how Keysight determines the recommended calibration interval, and why and how this can be extended or reduced.

Application Note 2015-04-21

Calibration of Time Base Oscillators - White Paper
As more accurate clocks were produced, new uses of time measurement were explored. As new uses were discovered, the need for even more accurate clocks became apparent.

Application Note 2015-04-13

PDF PDF 250 KB
Spectrum Analysis Basics - Application Note
This application note (also known as AN 150) explains the fundamentals of swept-tuned, superheterodyne spectrum analyzers and discusses the latest advances in spectrum analyzer capabilities.

Application Note 2015-02-13

Assurance of Calibration Results: Applying the Power of Visual Information to Improve Quality
White paper on how Keysight maintains the ongoing reliability and validity of our calibration processes to help you mitigate the risks inherent in your measurements by using control charts.

Application Note 2014-12-15

PDF PDF 267 KB
Understanding Measurement Risk - White Paper
An intuitive explanation of probability density functions drawing on Monte Carlo simulation to demonstrate the relationship between a device's true values and corresponding measured value.

Application Note 2014-08-12

PDF PDF 735 KB

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