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Basics & Measurement Fundamentals

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Understanding the Fundamental Principles of Vector Network Analysis - Application Note 1287-1 
This application note explores the fundamental principles of vector network analysis. The discussion includes the common parameters (S-parameters). RF fundamentals such as transmission lines and the Smith chart will also be reviewed.

Application Note 2017-09-07

Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Noise Figure Measurements - Application Note 
This 32-page, black-and-white application note providesinformation on RF and Microwave noise figure measurementts. Topics include noise figure and temperature, noise characteristics of two-port networks, and the measurement of noise figure.

Application Note 2017-09-06

Signal Analysis Measurement Fundamentals, Optimize Noise Floor, Resolution Bandwidth, and More 
Learn measurement fundamentals to optimize your signal analysis for greater insights

Application Note 2017-02-13

Spectrum Analysis Basics - Application Note 
This application note (also known as AN 150) explains the fundamentals of swept-tuned, superheterodyne spectrum analyzers and discusses the latest advances in spectrum analyzer capabilities.

Application Note 2016-11-02

Making Accurate Intermodulation Distortion Measurements with the PNA-X (1408-17) – Application Note 
This application note describes accuracy considerations when using the Keysight PNA-X microwave network analyzer for two-tone intermodulation distortion measurements.

Application Note 2012-03-05

Optimizing Dynamic Range for Distortion Measurements 
This Product Note covers high dynamic range measurement techniques for the new PSA Performance Spectrum Analyzer Series. The Note describes the best way to use the PSA series to make distortion measurements such as ACP, intermodulation, and harmonic distortion.

Application Note 2011-10-27

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Best of 8 Hints for Making Better Oscilloscopes Measurements  
Keysight engineers sharing ideas of how to use the equipment they design

Application Note 2008-03-17

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PNA - Pulsed-RF S-Parameter Measurements Using Wideband and Narrowband Detection (AN 1408-12) 

Application Note 2007-11-28

Measuring Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) with PNA Network Analyzers (1408-16) – Application Note 

Application Note 2007-10-09

8 Hints for Solving Common Debugging Problems with Your Logic Analyzer (AN 1326) 

Application Note 2007-04-19

Bluetooth® RF Measurement Fundamentals - Application Note 
Bluetooth® is an open specification for a wireless personal area network. It provides limited range RF connectivity for voice and data transmissions between information appliances.

Application Note 2006-10-12

Comparison of Different Jitter Analysis Techniques With a Precision Transmitter - Application Note 
This white paper describes how various jitter analysis techniques give dissimilar results. Which is right? We built a precision jitter transmitter to compare results of different techniques where test sets were exposed to known levels of jitter.

Application Note 2006-04-06

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PNA - Amplifier - High-Power Testing (1408-10) 

Application Note 2005-09-28

Validating Transceiver FPGAs Using Advanced Calibration Techniques 

Application Note 2005-04-27

Network Analysis Solutions Advanced Filter Tuning Using Time Domain Transforms (AN 1287-10) 
Tuning multi-stage, coupled-resonator band-pass filters is difficult due to interactions between resonator and coupling tuning. To achieve the proper pass-band response and to get low return loss you must precisely tune the frequency of each resonator and precisely set each coupling between the...

Application Note 2003-05-25

Using a Network Analyzer to Characterize High-Power Components (1287-6) – Application Note 
This Application Note describes linear and nonlinear measurements of high-power components and how to use a network analyzer for making them.

Application Note 2003-03-12

An Introduction to Multiport and Balanced Device Measurements (AN 1373-1) 
The increase in integration in the wireless communications and electronics industries and the need to decrease size, cost, weight, and power consumption is driving design engineers to replace discrete components with more complex modules.

Application Note 2002-11-11

Comparison of Mixer Characterization using New Vector Characterization Techniques – White Paper 
This paper presents a novel method for characterizing RF mixers, yielding magnitude, phase, and group delay response of the conversion loss, as well as the input match and output match.

Application Note 2002-10-04

Network Analysis - Balanced and Multiport Device Measurements (1373-2) 
The use of differential components such as surface acoustic wave (SAW) filters and differential amplifiers is becoming more common in the wireless industry because they have greater performance than their single-ended counterparts.

Application Note 2002-03-08

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Network Analysis - Filter And Amplifier Measurement Examples (AN 1287-4) 
The network analyzer is used for a variety of device and component characterization tasks in both laboratory and production environments.

Application Note 2000-08-01

Simplified Filter Tuning Using Time Domain (AN 1287-8) 
This Application Note describes a method of tuning a filter using the time-domain response of its return loss, which makes filter tuning vastly easier.

Application Note 2000-07-01

Improving Network Analyzer Measurements of Frequency-translating Devices (1287-7) – Application Note 
This Application Note explores current test equipment solutions and techniques that can be used to accurately characterize and test frequency-translating devices.

Application Note 2000-03-01