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RF & Microwave

For most of your RF & Microwave measurement needs, you can find application & solution information here.

Be sure to check the library of application notes for detailed information on using your equipment and successfully completing the measurements you need.

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10 Steps to a Perfect Digital Demodulation Measurement (PN 89400-14A) 
This Product Note provides a recommended procedure for configuring the Keysight 89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzers to demodulate and characterize a wide variety of digitally-modulated signals. Follow it step-by-step to insure that no important setup parameters are missed or incorrectly...

Application Note 2000-10-01

Using EVM Measurements to Analyze and Troubleshoot Vector-Modulated Signals (PN 89400-14) 
This Product Note reviews the basics of EVM measurements on the 89400 vector signal analyzers, and outlines a general procedure that may be used to methodically track down even the most obscure signal problems. Understanding Error Vector Magnitude EVM Defined Making EVM...

Application Note 2000-10-01

Extending Vector Signal Analysis to 26.5 GHz with 20 MHz Information Bandwidth (PN 89400-13) 
This Product Note shows you how to configure, calibrate and operate a measurement system capable of wide bandwidth (up tp 20 MHz) vector signal analysis using the 89410A VSA & the 71910A Wideband Surveillance Receiver.

Application Note 2000-10-01

PDF PDF 569 KB
Tools for Digital Microwave Radio Installation and Maintenance (AN 355-1) 
This Application Note is an application and testing overview of instrumentation needed for characterizing performance of digital microwave radios at the time of link installations, or for the periodic maintenance functions. Covers topics from multipath fading tests to group delay and BERT tests...

Application Note 2000-09-01

PDF PDF 1.21 MB
Examine GMSK Modulation in GSM and PCN Mobile Communications Systems (AN 1200-11) 
Current analog mobile communications systems have reached capacity limits in several large population centers. Future systems will utilize Time Division Multiple Access techniques to increase capacity. These new digital modulation techniques are difficult to characterize using conventional test...

Application Note 2000-09-01

Practical Noise-Figure Measurement and Analysis for Low-Noise Amplifier Designs (AN 1354) 
This Application Note is a timely and detailed examination of the process needed for making practical noise figure measurements of low-noise amplifiers which includes software modeling.

Application Note 2000-09-01

PDF PDF 1.65 MB
89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzer Understanding Time and Frequency Domain Interactions  
The intent of this Product Note is to provide a more intuitive feel for interactions among the time and frequency setup parameters of the Keysight 89400 Vector Signal Analyzers.

Application Note 2000-09-01

89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzer Measuring Transmitter Transients 
This Product Note describes how to use the 89400 Series vector signal analyzers to understand and control the transient behavior of transmitters.

Application Note 2000-09-01

89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzer Measuring Phase Noise 

Application Note 2000-09-01

Using Vector Modulation Analysis in Digital RF Communications Systems (PN 89400-8) 
Keysight 89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzers with vector modulation analysis (option AYA) provide the numerical and visual tools to help quickly identify and quantify impairments to digitally modulated signals, whether using standard or several non-standard modulation formats. This Product...

Application Note 2000-09-01

89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzer Time-Capture Capabilities 
The 89400 Series Vector Signal Analyzers (VSAs) feature a time-capture capability that enables the user to collect up to 1 Msample of data at a time and later choose what type of analysis to perform on the data.

Application Note 2000-09-01

Optimizing VCO/PLL evaluations and PLL synthesizer designs AN 1330-1 
This application note clarifies the role and performance requirements of the synthesized oscillator used in wireless communication equipment, and introduces our test solution for VCO/PLL evaluation.

Application Note 2000-09-01

Comparing Power Measurements on Digitally Modulated Signals 
Measuring the power of digital CDMA signals is not as straightforward as the procedure employed when measuring their analog counterparts. While there are several ways to perform these in-channel and out-of-channel measurements, a spectrum analyzer and software-implemented power detection makes...

Application Note 2000-09-01

PDF PDF 81 KB
Optimizing Spectrum Analyzer Amplitude Accuracy (AN 1316) 
This Application Note covers the factors affecting the accuracy (or uncertainty) of amplitude measurements made with spectrum analyzers, and explains how to calculate worst-case uncertainty in general situations. It will help you analyze a measurement and decide what procedure to follow to...

Application Note 2000-08-01

Simplified Analysis of Phase-Locked Loop Capture and Tracking Range (AN 1200-7) 
The Keysight 53310A's ability to measure and display a signal's continuous frequency over time makes dynamic frequency analysis of PLLs easy. A direct measure of the PLL's capture and tracking range is obtained by monitoring the output frequency while the PLL is forced to go in and out of lock. A...

Application Note 2000-08-01

VCO Step Response Analysis Made Easy (AN 1200-3) 
The Keysight 53310A allows for an easy-to-use single pass technique for displaying the VCO's output frequency versus time. It makes rapid, high resolution frequency measurements in a back-to-back manner. This yields a full analysis of a VCO's step response in a single pass. For applications that...

Application Note 2000-08-01

Peak Deviation and Center Frequency Measurements for CT2 and DECT Radios (AN 1200-12) 
The use of digital modulation in mobile communications systems is growing rapidly. Information in the form of 1s and 0s is often transmitted as two different frequencies. This is known as minimum shift keying or GMSK if the data is filtered. Measuring the deviation accurately on a bursted signal...

Application Note 2000-08-01

Fast Characterization of Pulse-Width Encoded Data (AN 1200-5) 
The built in fast histogram capability of the Keysight 53310A is a simple and easy way to analyze pulse width encoded data. In less than a second, it takes a hundred thousand pulse width measurements, rearranges the measurements in value order, then displays how often a given value occurred.

Application Note 2000-08-01

TS-5550 Cellular Phone Functional Test Platform (PN TS-5550) 
This 12-page color print on demand Product Note discusses the TS-5550 platform features and benefits, including the ability to test up to four celluar phones at once. It is a flexible system for rapid development of cellular phone functional test. Configuration and ordering structure is also given.

Application Note 2000-08-01

Noise Power Ratio Measurements Using E2507B/E2508AMulti-format Communications Signal Simulator 
The NPR measurement requires a stimulus source to generate conditioned noise and a measurement receiver to analyze the changes in the noise after it passes through the device under test. This Product Note shows how the E2507B or E2508A Multi-format Communications Signal Simulator...

Application Note 2000-08-01

PDF PDF 384 KB
Making Radiated and Conducted Compliance Measurements with EMI Receivers (AN 1302) 
In this Application Note, detailed measurement procedures are provided for Keysight 8542E and 8546A EMI receivers. Contents: Introduction to compliance measurements The compliance measurements process Compliance EMI receiver requirements Requirements above 1 GHz...

Application Note 2000-06-01

PDF PDF 381 KB
8 Hints For Successful Impedance Measurement (AN 346-4) 
Selection criteria, device characteristics, fixturing and error correction etc.

Application Note 2000-06-01

8753/8720 Pulsed Measurements - Application Note 
The aim of this Product Note is to show that under certain conditions, network analyzers such as the Keysight 8720ES and 8753ES can produce good results at a much lower cost.

Application Note 2000-05-01

PDF PDF 392 KB
4 Hints for Making Better Microwave Counter Measurements 
This Product Note provides four pertinent hints for making better microwave counter measurements, describes the advantages of using a microwave counter, and deals with the unique measurement problems created by the advancement in counter technology.

Application Note 1998-09-01

Fundamentals of RF and Microwave Power Measurements (AN 64-1A) 
This Application Note is for information only. Keysight no longer sells or supports these products.

Application Note 1998-06-01

PDF PDF 720 KB

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