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Optical & Photonic

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Lightwave Tutorial Series on Complex Optical Modulation - Article 
Keysight offers a tutorial series on complex optical modulation featured in Lightwave magazine, featuring for example the challenges of coherent signal detection.

Article 2014-05-22

 
Spectrum Management for Efficient Bandwidth Allocation - X-COM 
Spectrum Management Solutions for Efficient Bandwidth Allocation from X-COM and Keysight

Solution Brief 2014-05-14

 
Essentials of Coherent Optical Data Transmission - Application Note 
The Application Note explains how complex modulated optical signals can maximize bit transfer efficiency in fiber optical data transmission.

Application Note 2014-04-02

PDF PDF 3.03 MB
Polarization Tutorial CD - Ordering Form 
Polarization Tutorial CD - Ordering and Information Request Form.

Demo 2014-03-31

 
Lightwave Catalog: Optical-Electrical/Polarization/Complex Modulation Analysis 2014 Vol 2 - Catalog 
Volume II covers “Optical –Electrical/Polarization/Complex Modulation Analysis“ for the transmission networks.

Catalog 2014-03-24

PDF PDF 2.91 MB
Lightwave Catalog: General Photonic Test 2014 Volume 1 - Catalog  
Volume I covers “General Photonic Instruments” to characterize single-mode and multimode fiber-optic components, especially at the physical layer.

Catalog 2014-03-24

PDF PDF 1.45 MB
Lightwave Catalog: Bit Error Ratio and Waveform Analysis 2014 Volume 3 - Catalog 
Volume III covers “Bit Error Ratio & Waveform Analysis” for data center and cloud environment.

Catalog 2014-03-01

PDF PDF 2.50 MB
High Speed Lightwave Component Analysis - Application Note 
The principles and methods are described for measuring the frequency dependence of fiberoptic transponders that convert electrical signals to optical signals and optical to electrical.

Application Note 2014-02-26

What is the difference between an equivalent time and a real-time oscilloscope? - Application Note  
This document will discuss how each type of oscilloscope samples the incoming waveform and explain the trigger requirements.

Application Note 2013-11-18

Measuring Jitter in Digital Systems (AN 1448-1) - Application Brief 
This application note is for R&D designers and engineers working on high-speed digital designs. It addresses jitter measurements in digital circuits, how the different measurement techniques are best applied, and how these decisions may change as the data rates increase.

Application Note 2013-09-16

PDF PDF 1.78 MB
Probing High-Speed Signals with the 86100 Series of Wide-Bandwidth Sampling Oscilloscopes (86100-6) 
Product Note 86100-6 discusses three important measurement accessories that help make probe-based measurements both simple and accurate for the Keysight 86100 Wide-Bandwidth Oscilloscope.

Application Note 2011-07-28

Transient Optical Power Measurements with the N7744A and N7745A 
This note shows how to measure transient and time-dependent optical signals, both of which are related to the fast sample rate and data throughput of the N7744A and N7745A multiport power meters.

Application Note 2010-11-12

PDF PDF 1.23 MB
Measuring IL and PDL spectra with the fast-switching N7786B 
The advantages and details of a new method for swept-wavelength IL and PDL measurement is introduced, including configuration details for the necessary instruments and software.

Application Note 2009-04-10

PDF PDF 672 KB
Forward Clocking - Receiver (RX) Jitter Tolerance Test with J-BERT N4903B High-P - Application Note 
This document describes the requirements for forward clocking topology RX Jitter tolerance testing.

Application Note 2009-03-24

PDF PDF 606 KB
Improving the Accuracy of Optical Transceiver Extinction Ratio Measurements (AN 1550-9) 
This paper discusses extinction ratio - measurement challenges and causes of measurement uncertainty & variability. In addition, it describes methods for reducing uncertainties caused by non-ideal performance of standard reference receivers.

Application Note 2009-02-21

Capturing the Fifth Harmonic: Tradeoffs Between Sampling and Real Time scopes 
There is no simple way to decide how much oscilloscope bandwidth you will need. Scope vendors promote a “fifth harmonic” rule of thumb. They suggest you purchase a scope with sufficient bandwidth to capture the fifth harmonic of your signals.

Application Note 2009-02-20

Using Equalization Techniques on Your Infiniium 90000A Series Oscilloscope 
A transmitter sends a serial signal over a transmission channel (examples: backplane, cable) to a receiver. As the signal rate increases, the channel the signal travels through distorts the signal at the receiver.

Application Note 2009-02-17

PCI Express® Revision 2 - Receiver Testing With J-BERT N4903A and 81150A Pulse - Application Note 
Receiver Testing With J-BERT N4903A and 81150A Pulse

Application Note 2008-12-03

PDF PDF 1000 KB
Measuring Polarization Dependent Loss of Passive Optical Components 
A new document on the methods of characterizing passive optical components.

Application Note 2008-12-01

PDF PDF 545 KB
Characterizing Clock Jitter through Phase Noise Measurements Speeds up Design Verification Process 
This white paper discusses a new measurement method for obtaining highly accurate low random jitter (RJ) measurements and performing real-time analysis of RJ and periodic jitter (PJ) of components.

Application Note 2008-11-20

Upgrade to PCI Express 2.0© Receiver Test - Application Note 
The 15431A is a filter set for the 81150A. It generates the random jitter profile for testing PCI Express 2.0 receivers, to be used in conjunction with the N4903A. This fact sheet explains the upgrade.

Application Note 2008-10-24

PDF PDF 348 KB
The Benefits of and Considerations for the Embedded CDR in the N5980A - App Note 
The Benefits of and Considerations for the Embedded CDR in the N5980A

Application Note 2008-09-16

PDF PDF 591 KB
Method of Implementation (MOI) for DisplayPort Sink Compliance Test - Application Note 
Method of Implementation (MOI) for DisplayPort Sink Compliance Test

Application Note 2008-08-18

PDF PDF 1.87 MB
On-Wafer Testing of Opto-Electronic Components Using LCA's 
This document describes the principles of on-wafer measurements on opto-electronic components

Application Note 2008-08-13

Calibrating optical stress signals for characterizing 10 Gb/s optical transceivers - App Note 
Calibrating optical stress signals for characterizing 10 Gb/s optical transceivers

Application Note 2008-06-10

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