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400G Design and Test Solutions

400G has new physical design challenges: whether you are looking at 400G Ethernet in data centers or metro and long haul transport optical links,
400G technology needs to fulfill extremely tight requirements regarding signal quality. In both cases, higher-order modulation formats combined with higher symbol rates means that a higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is necessary to achieve the required bit-error ratio (BER).

A move to PAM-4 modulation in 400G Ethernet data center systems also introduces data dependent jitter, which makes clock recovery more difficult. Apart from that, equalization including continuous time linear equalizers (CTLE) and decision feedback equalization (DFE) becomes a must for correction of logical decision thresholds.

Implementation of 400G in the metro and long haul optical links outside of the data centers can be achieved with higher-order complex modulation formats such as 16QAM.
Here, the challenges lie in an increased sensitivity to laser phase noise, timing errors and nonlinearities. Furthermore, there is an increased need for higher effective resolution of the digital-to-analog/ analog-to-digital conversion (DAC/ADC) and for more accurate skew and frequency response calibration.

For both application fields, Keysight's solutions are ready to enable deeper insights into the 400G designs in a minimum of time, especially as the standards evolve. In design verification and test, Keysight's solutions support innovation across new and existing networks.
This allows engineers to make the next step to higher data rates most efficiently.

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